Politics of France. This article is about political groups and tendencies in France.
Government of France. Constitution of France. The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
It is typically called the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, and replaced that of the Fourth Republic dating from 1946. Charles de Gaulle was the main driving force in introducing the new constitution and inaugurating the Fifth Republic, while the text was drafted by Michel Debré. Since then the constitution has been amended eighteen times, most recently in 2008. Summary Governance. Administrative divisions of France. The administrative divisions of France are concerned with the institutional and territorial organization of French territory.
There are many administrative divisions, which may have political (local government), electoral (districts), or administrative (decentralized services of the state) objectives. Administrative divisions. Metropolitan Area (France) Map of France indicating its commune municipalities.
The colours show the urban organisation status of each municipality in 2010 : An aire urbaine (literal and official translation: "urban area") is an INSEE (France's national statistics bureau) statistical concept describing a core of urban development and its 'rim' of commuter activity. In spite of its appellation, it is similar in function to many of the world's metropolitan areas. If an urban unit offers 5,000~10,000 jobs (thus becoming an 'average' urban cluster) yet manages to draw commuters numbering more than 40% of the population of nearby municipalities (and other municipalities drawn to these in the same way), the whole qualifies as an 'average' aire urbaine; a 'small' aire urbaine fulfils the same commuter criteria but is centred on an urban unit (or 'small' urban cluster) offering 1,500~5,000 jobs.
Regions of France. France is divided into 27 administrative regions (French: région, pronounced: [ʁe.ʒjɔ̃]), 22 of which are in Metropolitan France, and five of which are overseas.
Corsica is a territorial collectivity (French collectivité territoriale), but is considered a region in mainstream usage, and is even shown as such on the INSEE website. The mainland regions and Corsica are each further subdivided into departments, ranging in number from 2 to 8 per region for the metropolitan regions; the overseas regions technically consist of only one department each. The term region was officially created by the Law of Decentralisation (2 March 1982), which also gave regions their legal status. The first direct elections for regional representatives took place on 16 March 1986. General characteristics Role Regions lack separate legislative authority and therefore cannot write their own statutory law.
A region's primary responsibility is to build and furnish high schools. Left Right. List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants (2006 census) This is a list of communes in France (Overseas departments included) with a population over 20,000 at the 2006 census. All figures reflect INSEE's sans doubles comptes counting method (population municipale).
These figures reflect the official population per January 1, 2009. Departments of France. In the administrative divisions of France, the department (French: département, pronounced: [depaʁtəmɑ̃]) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the region and the commune.
There are 96 departments in metropolitan France and 5 overseas departments, which also are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 342 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the latter two have no autonomy and are used for the organisation of public services and sometimes elections.
The departments were created in 1791 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces in view of strengthening national unity; almost all of them are therefore named after rivers, mountains or coasts rather than after historical or cultural territories, unlike regions, and some of them are commonly referred to by their two-digit postal code number, which was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates. History
Overseas collectivities. Law of France. French system of Jurisdiction French legal system In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
This differs from the traditional Common Law conception in which the main distinction is between Criminal law and Civil Law. Private Law law governs relationships between individuals. It includes, in particular: Law. Foreign relations of France. Foreign relations. Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), known informally and more commonly as La Francophonie (or, more simply, Francophonie) is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is the first ("mother") or customary language; and/or where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers); and/or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The organization comprises 57 member states and governments, three associate members and twenty observers. The term francophonie (with a lowercase "f") also refers to the global community of French-speaking peoples, comprising a network of private and public organizations promoting special ties among all Francophones. In a majority of member states, French is not the predominant native language. The modern organization was created in 1970. History Structure Executive Secretariat (Secretaries-General) Summits Previous Summits. French armed forces. French Armed Forces. The French Armed Forces encompass the French Army, the French Navy, the French Air Force and the National Gendarmerie.
The President of the Republic heads the armed forces, with the title "chef des armées" ("chief of the military forces"). The President is the supreme authority for military matters and is the sole official who can order a nuclear strike. History The military history of France encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas including modern France, greater Europe, and French territorial possessions overseas. According to the British historian Niall Ferguson, France has participated in 168 major European wars since 387 BC, out of which they have won 109, drawn 10 and lost 49: this makes France the most successful military power in European history - in terms of number of fought and won. Resurgent French armies secured victories in dynastic conflicts against the Spanish, Polish, and Austrian crowns.
Personnel. Deployments of the French military. The military of France has several deployments throughout the world. Currently, France has over 20,000 troops deployed abroad (including temporary as well as permanent deployments): 12,000 of these troops act as sovereign forces while the other 8,000 are part of peacekeeping operations under international or defense agreements. Notably deployments in the African continent are French-speaking African nations. Deployments Military history of France. Map of French territorial losses and gains from 985 to 1947. The colonial empire is not shown. The military history of France encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas including modern France, the European continent, and a variety of regions throughout the world.
According to the British historian Niall Ferguson, France has participated in 168 major European wars since 387 BC, out of which they have won 109, drawn 10 and lost 49: this makes France the most successful military power in European history - in terms of number of fought and won. Government finance. Taxation in France. See Government of France for a wider perspective of French government. Taxation in France is determined by the yearly budget vote by the French Parliament, which determines which kinds of taxes (or quasi-taxes) can be levied and which rates can be applied. Overview The sumptuous main entrance of Direction régionale des finances publiques of Alsace in Strasbourg. In France, taxes are levied by the government, and collected by the public administrations. French "public administrations" are made up of three different institutions: the central government, i.e. the national government or the state ("l'État") strictly speaking, plus various central government bodies.