Politics of China. The Peoples Republic of China take place in a framework of the single-party socialist republic. The leadership of the Communist Party is stated in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. State power within the People's Republic of China (PRC) is exercised through the Communist Party of China, the Central People's Government and their provincial and local counterparts. Under the dual leadership system, each local Bureau or office is under the coequal authority of the local leader and the leader of the corresponding office, bureau or ministry at the next higher level. People's Congress members at the county level are elected by voters.
The PRC's population, geographical vastness, and social diversity frustrate attempts to rule from Beijing. As the social, cultural and political as well as economic consequences of market reform become increasingly manifest, tensions between the old—the way of the comrade—and the new—the way of the citizen—are sharpening. Communist Party Politics of China. Administrative divisions of China. Due to China's large population and area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. The constitution of China provides for three de jure levels of government. Currently, however, there are five practical (de facto) levels of local government: the province, prefecture, county, township, and village.
Since the 17th century, provincial boundaries in China have remained largely static. Major changes since then have been the reorganization of provinces in the northeast after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and the formation of autonomous regions, based on Soviet ethnic policies. Levels The Constitution of China provides for three levels: the province, county, and township.
Each of the levels (except "special administrative regions") correspond to a level in the Civil service of the People's Republic of China. Summary Provincial level Provincial level governments vary in details of organization: History Districts of Hong Kong. The Districts of Hong Kong are the 18 political areas by which Hong Kong is geographically divided. Each district has a district council, formerly district boards, for which the districts were established in 1982, when Hong Kong was under British rule.
However, the districts have limited relevance to the population, as few public services operate according to district boundaries. The police, fire services, health services and hospital authority, and postal service each define their own idiosyncratic geographic divisions. However major departments, such as the Education Bureau, do provide information based on district. History In the 1860s, residents speaking the same dialects were often grouped together, and social structure was more important than district structure. The District Administration Scheme was implemented in 1982 with the establishment of a district board and a district management committee in each of the districts in Hong Kong. Population See also Rovinces of China. Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau. The councils and assemblies of the municipalities of Macau were abolished on 1 January 2002, and their functions transferred to the Instituto para os Assuntos Cívicos e Municipais, slightly more than 2 years after Macau became a special administrative region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China.
They had been put in place under the administration of Portugal. History Each municipality was run by a municipal council (câmara municipal), with a supervising municipal assembly (assembleia municipal). The two municipalities (sing. município or concelho) of the Portuguese era, abolished in 2002, were: The Portuguese-era coat-of-arms, with two angels as heraldic supporters, was changed to a simpler design of a key with two birds as supporters. The IACM was given a logo based on the Chinese Han character 民, for "civilian". Parishes Parishes of Macau There are seven parishes (sing. freguesia) in Macau. 5 are in Concelho de Macau and 2 in Concelho das Ilhas. Municipality of Macau. Administrative divisions of the Republic of China. History Early years Republic of China Administrative Subdivision in 1945 Territorial Disputes A map showing the official divisions and territorial disputes as claimed by the Republic of China (2010 changes not shown) Although the administration of pro-independence President Chen Shui-bian (2000–2008) did not actively claim sovereignty over all of China, the national boundaries of the ROC have not been redrawn.
Thus, the claimed area of the ROC continues to include mainland China, several off-shore islands, and Taiwan. In practice, although ROC law still formally recognizes residents of mainland China as citizens of the ROC, it makes a distinction between persons who have household residency in the "Free area of the Republic of China" and those that do not, meaning that persons outside the area administered by the ROC must apply for special travel documents and cannot vote in ROC elections.
Changes to divisions on Taiwan Special considerations Re-organization Trade relations in China. Foreign relations of China. Diplomatic relations between world states and China China Nations that China has relations with Nations that have no diplomatic relations with China Disputed areas The foreign relations of China, officially the People's Republic of China, guides the way in which it interacts with foreign nations.
Institutions of foreign policy Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC Like most other nations, China's foreign policy is carried out by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. History of foreign policy Qing Dynasty By the mid 19th century, Chinese stability had come under increasing threat from both domestic and international sources. French political cartoon from the late 1890s shows helpless China being divided among Britain, Germany, Russia, France and Japan. Unequal treaties Suzerain For centuries China had claimed suzerain authority over numerous adjacent areas. First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) Chinese generals in Pyongyang surrender to the Japanese, October 1894. Foreign relations of China. List of wars involving the People's Republic of China.
Territorial disputes involving China. Emerging super-power status of China.
People's Liberation Army. The People's Liberation Army (PLA; simplified Chinese: 中国人民解放军; traditional Chinese: 中國人民解放軍; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn) is the military of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and was established on August 1, 1927 as the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army. August 1 is celebrated annually as PLA Day.
The modern PLA consists of four professional service branches: the People's Liberation Army Ground Force, the People's Liberation Army Navy, the People's Liberation Army Air Force and the Second Artillery Corps. It is the world's largest military force, with a strength of approximately 2,285,000 personnel, about 0.18% of the country's population. The People's Liberation Army's insignia consists of a roundel with a red star bearing the Chinese characters for Eight One, referring to August 1 (Chinese: 八一), the date of the 1927 Nanchang Uprising. Mission statement Former CMC Chairman Hu Jintao has defined the missions of the PLA as: History 1950s, 60s and 70s
Military in China. Urbanization in China. China's urbanization unlikely to lead to fast growth of middle class: UW geographer. The number of people living in China's cities, which last year for the first time surpassed 50 percent of the national population, is considered a boon for the consumer goods market. That is based on the assumption that there will be more families with more disposable income when poor farmers from China's countryside move to cities and become middle-class industrial and office workers. But the assumption overlooks a policy from the era of Chinese leader Mao Zedong that restricts the upward mobility of its rural citizens, says a University of Washington geographer. This calls into question China's strength in the global market and its ability to overtake the United States as a global superpower, according to Kam Wing Chan, a UW professor of geography.
His findings are published in the current issue of the journal Eurasian Geography and Economics. This is what "supplies China with a huge, almost inexhaustible, pool of super-exploitable labor," wrote Chan. China’s Urbanization: It Has Only Just Begun. In May, disgruntled workers of Honda factories in Zhongshan, southern China, went on strike at the Honda Lock auto parts factory and started posting accounts of the walkout online, spreading word among themselves and to workers elsewhere in China. In June, Bloomberg reported that China, “once an abundant provider of low-cost workers, is heading for the so-called Lewis turning point, when surplus labor evaporates, pushing up wages, consumption and inflation.” China had depleted its surplus labor; the period of cheap labor was over. In the subsequent debate, some observers concurred with the observation that a turning point had arrived in China. Others noted that the conclusion is too simplistic because it does not fit into the big picture of China’s demography.
With the gloomy economic prospects in the advanced economies and relatively strong recovery in the large emerging economies, the debate is about to resurface. Eclipse of “Unlimited Supplies of Labor” Migration and the Turning Point.