As is stated in the Convention, this requires that GHG concentrations are stabilized in the atmosphere at a level where ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change, food production is not threatened, and economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion. The Framework Convention was agreed in 1992, but since then, global emissions have risen. During negotiations, the G77 (a lobbying group in the United Nations representing 133 developing nations) pushed for a mandate requiring developed countries to "[take] the lead" in reducing their emissions. This was justified on the basis that: the developed world's emissions had contributed most to the stock of GHGs in the atmosphere; per-capita emissions (i.e., emissions per head of population) were still relatively low in developing countries; and the emissions of developing countries would grow to meet their development needs. This mandate was sustained in the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention, which entered into legal effect in 2005.
In ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, most developed countries accepted legally binding commitments to limit their emissions. These first-round commitments expired in 2012. United States President George W. Bush rejected the treaty on the basis that "it exempts 80% of the world, including major population centers such as China and India, from compliance, and would cause serious harm to the US economy."
At the 15th UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, held in 2009 at Copenhagen, several UNFCCC Parties produced the Copenhagen Accord. Parties associated with the Accord (140 countries, as of November 2010) aim to limit the future increase in global mean temperature to below 2 °C. The 16th Conference of the Parties (COP16) was held at Cancún in 2010. It produced an agreement, not a binding treaty, that the Parties should take urgent action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to meet a goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.
Boehner Says He's 'Not Qualified' To Talk About Climate Science. Here's How Scientists Responded. By Emily Atkin "Boehner Says He’s ‘Not Qualified’ To Talk About Climate Science.
Here’s How Scientists Responded. " House Speaker John Boehner. CREDIT: AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite. Rubio: 'I Don't Agree' With 'Notion' Of Climate Change. Sen.
Marco Rubio (R-FL) on Sunday said he doesn't believe that human activity is behind climate change. "I don't agree with the notion that some are putting out there, including scientists, that somehow there are actions we can take today that would actually have an impact on what's happening in our climate," he said on ABC's "This Week. " "Our climate is always changing. And what they have chosen to do is take a handful of decades of research and say that this is now evidence of a longer-term trend that's directly and almost solely attributable to manmade activity, I do not agree with that. " ABC's Jonathan Karl pressed Rubio on his belief that humans don't have anything to do with global warming. "But let me get this straight, you do not think that human activity, its production of CO2, has caused warming to our planet? " "I do not believe that human activity is causing these dramatic changes to our climate the way these scientists are portraying it.
Politics of global warming. Politics of Global Warming Pictogram.
The politics of global warming are complex due to numerous factors that arise from the global economy's interdependence on carbon dioxide emitting hydrocarbon energy sources and because carbon dioxide is directly implicated in global warming - making global warming a non-traditional environmental challenge: Implications to all aspects of a nation-state's economy - The vast majority of the world economy relies on energy sources or manufacturing techniques that release greenhouse gases at almost every stage of production, transportation, storage, delivery & disposal while a consensus of the world's scientists attribute global warming to the release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
Nontraditional Environmental Challenge Carbon dioxide and a nation-state's economy Energy Consumption Linked to CO2 Emissions source: USDOE EIA IEO 2011 lightingheating & coolingrefrigerationproduction of productscomputing and telecommunications Governance See also. 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference. The 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Durban, South Africa, from 28 November to 11 December 2011 to establish a new treaty to limit carbon emissions. A treaty was not established, but the conference agreed to establish a legally binding deal comprising all countries by 2015, which was to take effect in 2020. There was also progress regarding the creation of a Green Climate Fund for which a management framework was adopted.
The fund is to distribute US$100 billion per year to help poor countries adapt to climate impacts. While the president of the conference, Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, declared it a success, scientists and environmental groups warned that the deal was not sufficient to avoid global warming beyond 2 °C as more urgent action is needed. Background Statements India 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference. 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference. Opening of the COP19 on 11 November 2013 The conference led to an agreement that all states would start cutting emissions as soon as possible, but preferably by the first quarter of 2015.
The Warsaw Mechanism was also proposed. Background