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Observed and expected environmental effects

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Anthropogenic forcing has likely contributed to some of the observed changes, including sea level rise, changes in climate extremes (such as the number of warm and cold days), declines in Arctic sea ice extent, glacier retreat, and greening of the Sahara.



During the 21st century, glaciers and snow cover are projected to continue their widespread retreat. Projections of declines in Arctic sea ice vary. Recent projections suggest that Arctic summers could be ice-free (defined as ice extent less than 1 million square km) as early as 2025-2030.

"Detection" is the process of demonstrating that climate has changed in some defined statistical sense, without providing a reason for that change. Detection does not imply attribution of the detected change to a particular cause. "Attribution" of causes of climate change is the process of establishing the most likely causes for the detected change with some defined level of confidence. Detection and attribution may also be applied to observed changes in physical, ecological and social systems.

Environmental impact of the coal industry. A coal surface mining site in Bihar, India A mountaintop removal mining operation in the United States There are severe health effects caused by burning coal.[2][3] According to the reports issued by the World Health Organization in 2008 and by environmental groups in 2004, coal particulates pollution are estimated to shorten approximately 1,000,000 lives annually worldwide, including nearly 24,000 lives a year in the United States.[4][5] Coal mining generates significant additional independent adverse environmental health impacts, among them the polluted water flowing from mountaintop removal mining.

Environmental impact of the coal industry

Historically, coal mining has been a very dangerous activity and the list of historical coal mining disasters is a long one. Underground mining hazards include suffocation, gas poisoning, roof collapse and gas explosions. Climate change and agriculture. Human greenhouse gas emissions by sector, in the year 2010.

Climate change and agriculture

"AFOLU" stands for "agriculture, forestry, and other land use". Climate change is already affecting agriculture, with effects unevenly distributed across the world.[2] Future climate change will likely negatively affect crop production in low latitude countries, while effects in northern latitudes may be positive or negative.[2] Climate change will probably increase the risk of food insecurity for some vulnerable groups, such as the poor.[3] Agriculture contributes to climate change by (1) anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), and (2) by the conversion of non-agricultural land (e.g., forests) into agricultural land.[4] Agriculture, forestry and land-use change contributed around 20 to 25% to global annual emissions in 2010.[5] There are range of policies that can reduce the risk of negative climate change impacts on agriculture,[6][7] and to reduce GHG emissions from the agriculture sector.[8][9][10] Regional[edit]

Fears of runaway pollution crisis in China as THIRD river mysteriously turns white. Industrial dumping of chemicals thought to be major cause of bizarre colouringsLast month the city of Chongqing woke up to find their river had turned redLocals complain they cannot use rivers for livestock drinking water or for washing and cleaning By Eddie Wrenn Published: 15:29 GMT, 10 October 2012 | Updated: 06:44 GMT, 11 October 2012 Furious villagers in eastern China are demanding the closure of a new stone quarry after it turned their river completely white.

Fears of runaway pollution crisis in China as THIRD river mysteriously turns white

Residents in Aodi, Zhejiang province, say the river is now so heavily polluted that they can't use it for drinking water for their livestock, nor are they able to water their crops. They say that since the quarry opened a few years ago, the water regularly turns white, as the quarry bosses use the river to drain away residue caused by blast-cleaning white stones, which are cut from pits beside the river.

Arctic Warming is Altering Weather Patterns, Study Shows. EDITOR'S NOTE: This story was originally published April 3.

Arctic Warming is Altering Weather Patterns, Study Shows

Given recent news that Arctic sea ice set a record low, it's a reminder that changes in the Arctic can affect the U.S. and Europe. Amazon inhales more carbon than it emits. This finding resolves a long-standing debate about a key component of the overall carbon balance of the Amazon basin.

Amazon inhales more carbon than it emits

“The study is the first to characterise forest disturbances across all spatial scales from a few square metres to hundreds of hectares across the entire Amazon,” according to co-author Professor Emanuel Gloor of the University of Leeds, who jointly led the study. The Amazon's carbon balance is a matter of life and death: living trees take carbon dioxide out of the air as they grow, and dead trees put the greenhouse gas back into the air as they decompose. The new study, published today in Nature Communications, is the first to measure tree deaths caused by natural processes throughout the Amazon forest, even in remote areas where no data have been collected at ground level. Study concludes climate change will wreak havoc on oceans by 2100. Warnings of global ecological tipping points may be overstated. Deforestation in Borneo.

Warnings of global ecological tipping points may be overstated

Photo by: Rhett A. Butler. There's little evidence that the Earth is nearing a global ecological tipping point, according to a new Trends in Ecology and Evolution paper that is bound to be controversial. The authors argue that despite numerous warnings that the Earth is headed toward an ecological tipping point due to environmental stressors, such as habitat loss or climate change, it's unlikely this will occur anytime soon—at least not on land. The paper comes with a number of caveats, including that a global tipping point could occur in marine ecosystems due to ocean acidification from burning fossil fuels. "When others have said that a planetary critical transition is possible/likely, they've done so without any underlying model (or past/present examples, apart from catastrophic drivers like asteroid strikes)," lead author Barry Brook and Director of Climate Science at the University of Adelaide told mongabay.com.

CITATION: Brook, B. Related articles. Effects of global warming on oceans. Animated map exhibiting the world's oceanic waters.

Effects of global warming on oceans

A continuous body of water encircling the Earth, the World Ocean is divided into a number of principal areas with relatively free interchange among them. Five oceanic divisions are usually reckoned: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern; the last two listed are sometimes consolidated into the first three. Global mean land-ocean temperature change from 1880–2011, relative to the 1951–1980 mean. Effects of global warming. Summary of climate change impacts.

Effects of global warming

Projected global warming in 2100 for a range of emission scenarios.

Extreme weather

Sea level rise. Ecological systems. Long-term effects. Large-scale and abrupt impacts.