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Non-verbal communication

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Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages.

Some forms of non verbal communication include chronemics, haptics, gesture, body language or posture, facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles, architecture, symbols, infographics, and tone of voice, as well as through an aggregate of the above. Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage. This form of communication is the most known for interacting with people. These include voice lesson quality, emotion and speaking style as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Research has shown that up to 55% of human communication may occur through non verbal facial expressions, and a further 38% through paralanguage.[6] Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotional expressions in pictorial form.

Nonverbal communication. Understanding each other; seen in a street near the bell tower of Xi'an, China.

Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication is the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) cues between people. It is sometimes mistakenly referred to as body language (kinesics), but nonverbal communication encompasses much more, such as use of voice (paralanguage), touch (haptics), distance (proxemics), and physical environments/appearance.[1] Typically overlooked in nonverbal communication are proxemics, or the informal space around the body and chronemics: the use of time.

Body language

Chronemics. Sundial Chronemics is the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication.

Chronemics

The way that one perceives and values time, structures time and reacts to time frames communication. Across cultures, time perception plays a large role in the nonverbal communication process. Time perceptions include punctuality, willingness to wait and interactions. Emoticon. Origin of the term[edit] The word is a portmanteau word of the English words emotion and icon.

Emoticon

In web forums, instant messengers and online games, text emoticons are often automatically replaced with small corresponding images, which came to be called emoticons as well. Emoticons for a smiley face :-) and sad face :-( appear in the first documented use in digital form. Certain complex character combinations can only be accomplished in a double-byte language, giving rise to especially complex forms, sometimes known by their romanized Japanese name of kaomoji.

The use of emoticons can be traced back to the 19th century, and they were commonly used in casual and humorous writing. History[edit] Antecedents[edit] A New York Times transcript from an Abraham Lincoln speech written in 1862 contains "(applause and laughter ;)"; there is some debate as to whether it is a typo, a legitimate punctuation construct, or an emoticon.[3] Facial expression. Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne.

Facial expression

Through electric stimulation, determined which muscles were responsible for different facial expressions. Charles Darwin would later republish some of these photographs in his own work on the subject, which compared facial expressions in humans to those in animals. A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles beneath the skin of the face. These movements convey the emotional state of an individual to observers. Haptics. Haptics is any form of interaction involving touch (from Greek ἅπτω = 'I fasten onto, I touch').

Haptics

It can mean: Gesture. "Gestures" redirects here.

Gesture

Human positions. Human positions refer to the different positions that the human body can take.

Human positions

There are several synonyms that refer to the human position, often used interchangeably, but having specific flavors.[1] Basic positions[edit] While not moving, a human is usually in one of the following basic positions: Standing[edit] Standing couple, January 1873 Although quiet standing appears to be static, modern instrumentation shows it to be a process of rocking from the ankle in the sagittal plane.

Although standing isn't dangerous per se, there are pathologies associated with it. Sitting[edit] Sitting requires the buttocks resting on a more or less horizontal structure, like a chair or the ground. Squatting[edit] Squatting on the ground as a resting position. Lying[edit] When in lying position, the body may assume a great variety of shapes and positions. Supine position: lying on the back with the face up.Prone position: lying on the chest with the face down ("lying down" or "going prone").

Infographic. Information graphics or infographics are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present complex information quickly and clearly.[1][2] They can improve cognition by utilizing graphics to enhance the human visual system’s ability to see patterns and trends.[3][4] The process of creating infographics can be referred to as data visualization, information design, or information architecture.[2] Overview[edit] Infographics have been around for many years and recently the proliferation of a number of easy-to-use, free tools have made the creation of infographics available to a large segment of the population.

Infographic

Social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter have also allowed for individual infographics to be spread among many people around the world. Symbol. A red octagon symbolizes "stop" even without the word.

Symbol

A symbol is an object that represents, stands for, or suggests an idea, visual image, belief, action, or material entity. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, or visual images and are used to convey ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a picture of a tent might represent a campsite.

Numerals are symbols for numbers. Etymology[edit] The word derives from the Greek symbolon meaning token or watchword.