Komi language. The Komi language (in Komi: Коми кыв, transliteration: Komi kyv [komi kɨv]) is a Uralic language spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia.
Komi may be considered a single language with several dialects, or a group of closely related languages, making up one of the two branches of the Permic branch of the family. The other Permic language is Udmurt, to which Komi is closely related. Of the several Komi dialects or languages, two major varieties are recognized, closely related to one another: Komi-Zyrian, the largest group, serves as the literary basis within the Komi Republic; and Komi-Yodzyak, spoken by a small, isolated group of Komi to the north-west of Perm Krai and south of the Komi Republic. Permyak (also called Komi-Permyak) is spoken in Komi-Permyak Okrug, where it has literary status. Writing system A sample of the Komi language words. In addition, the letters Ф ф, Х х, and Ц ц might be used for words borrowed from Russian. Khanty language. Khanty (Hanti), previously known as Ostyak /ˈɒstiæk/, is the language of the Khant peoples.
It is spoken in Khanty–Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrugs as well as in Aleksandrovsky and Kargosoksky districts of Tomsk Oblast in Russia. According to the 1994 Salminen and Janhunen study, there were 12,000 Khanty-speaking people in Russia. Alphabet Cyrillic (version as of 2000) Cyrillic (version as of 1958) Latin (1931–1937) History of the literary language The Khanty written language was first created after the October Revolution on the basis of the Latin script in 1930, and then with the Cyrillic alphabet (with the additional letter 〈ң〉 for /ŋ/) from 1937.
Dialects Khanty is divided in three main dialect groups: Northern, Southern and Eastern. The Salym dialect can be classified as transitional between Eastern and Southern (Honti:1998 suggests closer affinity with Eastern, Abondolo:1998 in the same work with Southern). Tundra Nenets language. Tundra Nenets is a Samoyedic language spoken in northern Russia, from the Kanin Peninsula to the Yenisei River, by the Nenets people. It is closely related to Nganasan and Enets, more distantly related to Selkup and even more distantly to the other Uralic languages.
It has a sister language, the Forest Nenets language, and the two are sometimes seen as simply being dialects of a single Nenets language, and sometimes as separate languages. There is low mutual intelligibility between the two. In spite of the huge area in which Tundra Nenets is spoken, Tundra Nenets is very uniform with few dialectal differences. The language has speakers of all ages and is still passed down to children.
In some western parts of where the language is spoken, however, children and young people are increasingly shifting to either Russian or Komi. Phonology Vowels Monophthong vowels are present in the chart below. Forest Nenets language. Phonology Vowels In stressed syllables, the vowel phonemes of the Forest Nenets dialect are: In unstressed syllables length is not contrastive, and there are only five vowel qualities, to wit /æ ɑ ə i u/.
Word stress is not fixed to a certain position of a root; this leads to alternations of stressed mid vowels with unstressed high vowels. Long vowels are slightly more common than short vowels, although it is important to note that in words of a monosyllabic nature, short vowels are the only vowels that can occur. /æː/ and its unstressed counterpart only occur in non-palatal syllables and may be realized as a diphthong [ae] or [aɛ]. Some western dialects lack /æ/, replacing it with /e/.
Reduced vowel Consonants Forest Nenets has a system of 24 consonant phonemes: A rhotic consonant /r/ may appear in recent loanwords. The palatalized alveolars /tʲ/, /sʲ/ are typically realized as alveolo-palatals [tɕ], [ɕ]. Nenets languages. The Nenets languages are classified in the Uralic language family, making them distantly related to some European national languages – namely Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian – in addition to other minority languages spoken in Russia.
Both of the Nenets languages have been greatly influenced by Russian. Tundra Nenets has, to a lesser degree, been influenced by Komi, and Northern Khanty. Forest Nenets has also been influenced by Eastern Khanty. Tundra Nenets is well documented, considering its status as an indigenous- and minority language, also having a literary tradition going back to the 1930s, while Forest Nenets was first written during the 1990s and is only very little documented. Apart from the word 'Nenets', only one other Nenets word has entered the English language: 'parka', their traditional long hooded jacket made from skins and sometimes fur.