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Models of communication

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Communication theory

A transactional model of communication. File:Transactional comm model.jpg. A linear model of communication. File:Linear comm model.svg. Cancel Edit Delete Preview revert Text of the note (may include Wiki markup) Could not save your note (edit conflict or other problem).

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A constructionist model of communication

Barnlund model of communication. Schramm model of communication. David Berlo model of communication. File:Smcr.jpg. Shannon and Weaver model of communication. Elaboration likelihood model. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion [1] is a dual process theory of how attitudes are formed and changed, which was developed by Richard E.

Elaboration likelihood model

Petty and John Cacioppo during the early 1980s. The model examines how an argument's position on the "elaboration continuum", from processing and evaluating (high elaboration) to peripheral issues such as source expertise or attractiveness (low elaboration), shapes its persuasiveness. Information deficit model. The information deficit model (or simply deficit model) attributes public scepticism or hostility to a lack of understanding, resulting from a lack of information.

Information deficit model

It is associated with a division between experts who have the information and non-experts who do not. The model implies that communication should focus on improving the transfer of information from experts to non-experts. Models of communication. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Communication major dimensions scheme.

Models of communication

Axiology. History[edit] Between the 5th and 6th century B.C., it was important in Greece to be knowledgeable if you were to be successful.


Philosophers began to recognize that differences existed between the laws and morality of society. Socrates held the belief that knowledge had a vital connection to virtue, making morality and democracy closely intertwined. Socrates' student, Plato furthered the belief by establishing virtues which should be followed by all. With the fall of the government, values became individual, causing skeptic schools of thought to flourish, ultimately shaping a pagan philosophy that is thought to have influenced and shaped Christianity. Axiological Issues in Communication Studies[edit] Communication theorists seek to contribute to mutual intelligence about the anatomy and operation of human communication.

Those who take a conventional scientific approach believe that research must be free of values in order to be valid. Epistemology. Epistemology ( i/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge", and λόγος, logos, meaning "logical discourse") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.[1]


Ontology. Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality Overview[edit]


File:Communication emisor.jpg. File:Encoding communication.jpg. Spoken language. Spoken language, sometimes called oral language,[1] is language produced in its spontaneous form, as opposed to written language.

Spoken language

Many languages have no written form, and so are only spoken. In spoken language, much of the meaning is determined by the context. This contrasts with written language, where more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, whereas in written language a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument; similarly, spoken language tends to convey subjective information, including the relationship between the speaker and the audience, whereas written language tends to convey objective information.[2] The term spoken language is sometimes used for vocal language (in contrast to sign language), especially by linguists. See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ a term that is ambiguous with vocal languageJump up ^ Tannen, Deborah (1982).

Conversation. People conversing with each other on a sidewalk.


Speech act. A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication. According to Kent Back, "almost any speech act is really the performance of several acts at once, distinguished by different aspects of the speaker's intention: there is the act of saying something, what one does in saying it, such as requesting or promising, and how one is trying to affect one's audience.

" The contemporary use of the term goes back to J. L. Austin's development of performative utterances and his theory of locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts. Speech acts are commonly taken to include such acts as promising, ordering, greeting, warning, inviting and congratulating. Locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary acts[edit] Speech acts can be analysed on three levels: Natural language. In the philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is any language which arises in an unpremeditated fashion as the result of the innate facility for language possessed by the human intellect.

Natural language

A natural language is typically used for communication, and may be spoken, signed, or written. Natural language is distinguished from constructed languages and formal languages such as computer-programming languages or the "languages" used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic.[1] Defining natural language[edit] Native language learning[edit] The learning of one's own native language, typically that of one's parents, normally occurs spontaneously in early human childhood and is biologically, socially and ecologically driven.