Wikipedia entry on mental disorders in the 19th century. Syndrome. Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia (/ˌskɪtsɵˈfrɛniə/ or /ˌskɪtsɵˈfriːniə/) is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real.
Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, auditory hallucinations, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and lack of motivation. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person's reported experiences. Genetics and early environment, as well as psychological and social processes, appear to be important contributory factors. Some recreational and prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms. Psychiatry. Initial psychiatric assessment of a person typically begins with a case history and mental status examination.
Psychological tests and physical examinations may be conducted, including on occasion the use of neuroimaging or other neurophysiological techniques. Mental disorders are broadly diagnosed in accordance with criteria listed in diagnostic manuals such as the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), edited and used by the World Health Organization.
The fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5) was published in 2013, and its development was expected to be of significant interest to many medical fields. The combined treatment of psychiatric medication and psychotherapy has become the most common mode of psychiatric treatment in current practice, but current practice also includes widely ranging variety of other modalities.
Cartwright in 1851 that caused black slaves to flee captivity.:41 Today, drapetomania is considered an example of pseudoscience,:2 and part of the edifice of scientific racism. Etymology The term derives from the Greek δραπετης (drapetes, "a runaway [slave]") + μανια (mania, "madness, frenzy"). Description In Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race, Cartwright points out that the Bible calls for a slave to be submissive to his master, and by doing so, the slave will have no desire to run away. Cartwright described the disorder – which, he said, was "unknown to our medical authorities, although its diagnostic symptom, the absconding from service, is well known to our planters and overseers" – in a paper delivered before the Medical Association of Louisiana:291 that was widely reprinted.
Emancipation. Emancipation is any of various efforts to procuring political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally in discussion of such matters.
Emancipation stems from ēx manus capere ('take out the hand'). Among others, Karl Marx discussed political emancipation in his 1844 essay "On the Jewish Question", although often in addition to (or in contrast with) the term human emancipation. Marx's views of political emancipation in this work were summarized by one writer as entailing "equal status of individual citizens in relation to the state, equality before the law, regardless of religion, property, or other “private” characteristics of individual people. " See also References Further reading Wolfdietrich Schmied-Kowarzik Karl Marx as a Philosopher of Human Emancipation, translated by Dylan C.
Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society. The Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society was an advocacy group started by former asylum patients and their supporters in 19th century Britain.
The Society campaigned for greater protection against wrongful confinement or cruel and improper treatment, and for reform of the lunacy laws. Elizabeth Packard. Elizabeth Parsons Ware Packard Elizabeth Parsons Ware Packard (28 December 1816 – 25 July 1897) was an advocate for the rights of women and people accused of insanity.
Life At the insistence of her parents, Elizabeth Parsons Ware married minister Theophilus Packard on 21 May 1839. The couple had six children. The family resided in Kankakee County, Illinois and, for many years, appeared to have a peaceful marriage. But Theophilus Packard held quite decisive religious beliefs. When Illinois opened its first hospital for the mentally ill in 1851, the state legislature passed a law that required a public hearing before a person could be committed against his or her will.
Elizabeth Packard spent the next three years at the Jacksonville Insane Asylum in Jacksonville, IL (now the Jacksonville Developmental Center). When Mrs. Neurasthenia. Neurasthenia is a term that was first used at least as early as 1829 to label a mechanical weakness of the actual nerves, rather than the more metaphorical "nerves" referred to by George Miller Beard later.
Neurasthenia is currently a diagnosis in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (and the Chinese Society of Psychiatry's Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders). However, it is no longer included as a diagnosis in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Americans were said to be particularly prone to neurasthenia, which resulted in the nickname "Americanitis" (popularized by William James). Another, rarely used, term for neurasthenia is nervosism. Symptoms The condition was explained as being a result of exhaustion of the central nervous system's energy reserves, which Beard attributed to modern civilization.