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Mental disorders

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Developmental disorder. Developmental disorders is a group of neurological conditions originating in childhood that involve serious impairment in different areas.

Developmental disorder

There are several ways of using this term.[1] The most narrow concept is used in the category "Specific Disorders of Psychological Development" in the ICD-10.[1] These disorders comprise language disorders, learning disorders, motor disorders and autism spectrum disorders.[2] In broader definitions ADHD is included, and the term used is neurodevelopmental disorders.[1] Yet others include antisocial behavior and schizophrenia that begins in childhood and continues through life.[1] However, these two latter conditions are not as stable as the other developmental disorders, and there is not the same evidence of a shared genetic liability.[1] Developmental disorders are present from early life. They usually improve as the child grows older, but they also entail impairments that continue through adult life. Child abuse. Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional maltreatment or neglect of a child or children.[1] In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department for Children and Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child.[2] Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with.

Child abuse

There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. In Western countries, preventing child abuse is considered a high priority, and detailed laws and policies exist to address this issue. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. Douglas J. Developmental disability. Developmental disability is a diverse group of severe chronic conditions that are due to mental and/or physical impairments.

Developmental disability

Developmental disabilities cause individuals living with them many difficulties in certain areas of life, especially in "language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living".[1] Developmental disabilities can be detected early on, and do persist throughout an individual's lifespan. Most common developmental disabilities: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) causes autism and intellectual disability among boys.Down syndrome is a condition in which people are born with an extra chromosome.

Substance abuse. Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others.

Substance abuse

The term "drug abuse" does not exclude dependency, but is otherwise used in a similar manner in nonmedical contexts. The terms have a huge range of definitions related to taking a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. Classification of mental disorders. The classification of mental disorders, also known as psychiatric nosology or taxonomy, is a key aspect of psychiatry and other mental health professions and an important issue for people who may be diagnosed.

Classification of mental disorders

There are currently two widely established systems for classifying mental disorders—Chapter V of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) produced by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) produced by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Both list categories of disorders thought to be distinct types, and have deliberately converged their codes in recent revisions so that the manuals are often broadly comparable, although significant differences remain.

Other classification schemes may be in use more locally, for example the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders. Other manuals have some limited use by those of alternative theoretical persuasions, such as the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual. Cognitive disorder. Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect learning, memory, perception, and problem solving, and include amnesia, dementia, and delirium.

Cognitive disorder

While anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and psychotic disorders can also have an effect on cognitive and memory functions, the DSM-IV-TR does not consider these cognitive disorders, because loss of cognitive function is not the primary (causal) symptom.[1] Causes vary between the different types of disorders but most include damage to the memory portions of the brain.[2][3][4] Treatments depend on how the disorder is caused. Medication and therapies are the most common treatments; however, for some types of disorders such as certain types of amnesia, treatments can suppress the symptoms but there is currently no cure.[3][4] Cognitive mental disorder perspective[edit] Classifications[edit]

Dementia. Dementia is a broad category of brain disease that includes any disease that causes loss of cognitive ability (the ability to think and reason clearly) that is severe enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

Dementia

It must also be a worsening of functioning compared to how the person was previously.[1] The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's Dementia (75%).[1] Other common forms of dementia include: Dementia with Lewy Bodies, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Corticobasalar Degeneration, Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Dementia is a disease that becomes more common with age. Amnesia. Amnesia (from Greek ἀμνησία from ἀ- meaning "without" and μνήμη memory) is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.[1] Amnesia can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs.

Amnesia

Essentially, amnesia is loss of memory. The memory can be either wholly or partially lost due to the extent of damage that was caused.[2] There are two main types of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an accident or operation.[3] In some cases the memory loss can extend back decades, while in others the person may lose only a few months of memory. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store. People with this type of amnesia cannot remember things for long periods of time. Discovery[edit] Important case studies[edit] Patient R.B. Delirium. Delirium, or acute confusional state, is a syndrome that presents in two basic forms. In its hyperactive form, it is manifested as severe confusion and disorientation, developing with relatively rapid onset and fluctuating in intensity.

In its hypoactive form, it is manifested by an equally sudden withdrawal from interaction with the outside world. Delirium as a syndrome is one which occurs more frequently in people in their later years. However, when it occurs in the course of a critical illness, delirium has been found to occur in young and old patients at relatively even rates. Delirium represents an organically-caused decline from a previously attained baseline level of cognitive function. Dissociation (psychology) In psychology, the term dissociation describes a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experience.

Dissociation (psychology)

The major characteristic of all dissociative phenomena involves a detachment from reality, rather than a loss of reality as in psychosis.[1][2][3][4] Dissociative experiences are further characterized by the varied maladaptive mental constructions of an individual's natural imaginative capacity. [citation needed] Impulse control disorder. Impulse control disorder (ICD) is a class of psychiatric disorders characterized by impulsivity – failure to resist a temptation, urge or impulse that may harm oneself or others.

Impulse control disorder

Many psychiatric disorders feature impulsivity, including substance-related disorders, paraphilias, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, conduct disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. The fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) published in May 2013 includes a new chapter (not in DSM-IV-TR) on Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders covering disorders "characterized by problems in emotional and behavioral self-control".[1] It also includes Impulse-Control Disorders Not Otherwise Specified, which encompasses intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, and kleptomania.[1] Classification[edit] Pathological gambling[edit]

Psychosis. Psychosis (from the Greek ψυχή psyche, "mind/soul", and -ωσις -osis, "abnormal condition or derangement") refers to an abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality". People suffering from psychosis are described as psychotic. Psychosis (as a sign of a psychiatric disorder) is a diagnosis of exclusion. Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia (/ˌskɪtsɵˈfrɛniə/ or /ˌskɪtsɵˈfriːniə/) is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real.

Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, auditory hallucinations, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and lack of motivation. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person's reported experiences. Genetics and early environment, as well as psychological and social processes, appear to be important contributory factors. Some recreational and prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms. Somatoform disorder. A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,[1][2][3] is a mental disorder characterized by symptoms that suggest physical illness or injury – symptoms that cannot be explained fully by a general medical condition or by the direct effect of a substance, and are not attributable to another mental disorder (e.g., panic disorder).[4] In people who have a somatic symptom disorder, medical test results are either normal or do not explain the person's symptoms, and history and physical examination do not indicate the presence of a medical condition that could cause them.

Patients with this disorder often become worried about their health because doctors are unable to find a cause for their symptoms. This may cause severe distress. Preoccupation with the symptoms may portray a patient's exaggerated belief in the severity of their ill-health.[5] Symptoms are sometimes similar to those of other illnesses and may last for several years. Personality disorder. Personality disorders are a class of mental disorders characterised by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture. These patterns develop early, are inflexible and are associated with significant distress or disability.[1] The definitions may vary some according to other sources.[2][3] Official criteria for diagnosing personality disorders are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, and in the mental and behavioral disorders section of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, published by the World Health Organization.

The DSM-5 published in 2013 now lists personality disorders in exactly the same way as other mental disorders, rather than on a separate 'axis' as previously.[4] Anxiety disorder. Mood disorder. English psychiatrist Henry Maudsley proposed an overarching category of affective disorder.[2] The term was then replaced by mood disorder, as the latter term refers to the underlying or longitudinal emotional state,[3] whereas the former refers to the external expression observed by others.[1]

Adjustment disorder. The condition is different from anxiety disorder, which lacks the presence of a stressor, or post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder, which usually are associated with a more intense stressor. Signs and symptoms[edit] Suicidal behavior is prominent among people with AD of all ages, and up to one-fifth of adolescent suicide victims may have an adjustment disorder.

Bronish and Hecht (1989) found that 70% of a series of patients with AD attempted suicide immediately before their index admission and they remitted faster than a comparison group with major depression.[10] Asnis et al. (1993) found that AD patients report persistent ideation or suicide attempts less frequently than those diagnosed with major depression.[11] According to a study on 82 AD patients at a clinic, Bolu et al. (2012) found that 22 (26.8%) of these patients were admitted due to suicide attempt, consistent with previous findings.

Risk factors[edit] Adulthood: Marital conflictFinancial conflict. Sleep disorder. Tardive dyskinesia. Gender identity disorder. Sexual dysfunction. Eating disorder. Factitious disorder.