Berber people. The Berbers (Berber: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⴻⵏ, Imazighen / Imaziɣen in plural, and Amazigh in singular) are the ethnicity indigenous to North Africa west of the Nile Valley.
They are distributed from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Niger River. Historically they spoke Berber languages, which together form the "Berber branch" of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Since the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the seventh century, a large portion of Berbers have spoken varieties of Maghrebi Arabic, either by choice or obligation. Foreign languages like French and Spanish, inherited from former European colonial powers, are used by most educated Berbers in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia in some formal contexts such as higher education or business.
Today, most Berber-speaking people live in Algeria and Morocco. Animism. Specifically, animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system or cosmology of some indigenous tribal peoples, especially prior to the development and/or infiltration of colonialism and organized religion. Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives.
The animistic perspective is so fundamental, mundane, everyday and taken-for-granted that most animistic indigenous people do not even have a word in their languages that corresponds to "animism" (or even "religion"); the term is an anthropological construct rather than one designated by the people themselves. Largely due to such ethnolinguistic and cultural discrepancies, opinion has differed on whether animism refers to a broad religious belief or to a full-fledged religion in its own right. Theories of animism Jinn. Imam Ali Conquers Jinn Unknown artist Ahsan-ol-Kobar 1568 Golestan Palace.
Together, the jinn, humans and angels make up the three sapient creations of God. Like human beings, the jinn can be good, evil, or neutrally benevolent and hence have free will like humans and unlike angels. Etymology and definitions Jinn is a noun of the collective number in Arabic literally meaning "hidden from sight", and it derives from the Arabic root j-n-n (pronounced: jann/ junn جَنّ / جُنّ) meaning "to hide" or "be hidden". Averroes. ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad bin ʾAḥmad bin Rušd (Arabic: أبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد), commonly known as Ibn Rushd (Arabic: ابن رشد) or by his Latinized name Averroës (/əˈvɛroʊ.iːz/; April 14, 1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Al-Andalus Muslim polymath, a master of Aristotelian philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, logic, psychology, politics and Andalusian classical music theory, and the sciences of medicine, astronomy, geography, mathematics, physics and celestial mechanics.
Averroes was born in Córdoba, Al Andalus, present-day Spain, and died in Marrakesh, present-day Morocco. He was interred in his family tomb at Córdoba. The 13th-century philosophical movement based on Averroes' work is called Averroism. Averroes was a defender of Aristotelian philosophy against Ash'ari theologians led by Al-Ghazali. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi. Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936–1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Albucasis, was an Arab Muslim physician who lived in Al-Andalus.
He is considered the greatest medieval surgeon to have appeared from the Islamic World, and has been described by many as the father of modern surgery. His greatest contribution to medicine is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices. His pioneering contributions to the field of surgical procedures and instruments had an enormous impact in the East and West well into the modern period, where some of his discoveries are still applied in medicine to this day. He was the first physician to describe an ectopic pregnancy, and the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of haemophilia. Biography 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi. Avicenna. Avicenna (/ˌævɨˈsɛnə/; Latinate form of Ibn-Sīnā (Persian: پور سینا / ابن سینا; Arabic: ابن سینا), full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sīnā (Arabic: أبو علي الحسين ابن عبد الله ابن سينا; c. 980 – June 1037) was a Persian polymath and jurist who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing – a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine – a medical encyclopedia. which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650. In 1973, Avicenna's Canon Of Medicine was reprinted in New York. Circumstances The study of the Quran and the Hadith thrived in such a scholarly atmosphere.
The Canon of Medicine. Persian version of The Canon of Medicine located at tomb of Avicenna in Hamedan The Canon of Medicine (Arabic: القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) and completed in 1025. It presents a clear and organized summary of all the medical knowledge of the time.
It is a "magisterial exposition of Galenic medicine", although while Avicenna accepted Galen's evidence on anatomical matters he preferred Aristotle's theories where they differed from Galen. It served as a more concise reference in contrast to Galen's twenty volumes of medical corpus. As part of the Arabic translation project Ibn-Sina drew on various sources in the writing of his Canon an important one being the extensive pathology text from Chinese medicine called the Zhubing Yuanhuo Lun written in about 610 by Chao Yuan-fang.
George Sarton wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science: Al-Farabi. Holy man. Seer. Magician (fantasy) The Enchanted Garden of Messer Ansaldo by Marie Spartali Stillman: a magician makes a garden bear fruit and flowers in winter because Messer Ansaldo hopes thereby to win the heart of a married lady.
Wise old man. A wise old man: "Philosopher in Meditation" by Rembrandt Traits This type of character is typically represented as a kind and wise, older father-type figure who uses personal knowledge of people and the world to help tell stories and offer guidance that, in a mystical way, may impress upon his audience a sense of who they are and who they might become, thereby acting as a mentor.
He may occasionally appear as an absent-minded professor, appearing absent-minded due to a predilection for contemplative pursuits. Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi. Being endowed by nature with a comprehensive mind, Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to various fields of science, which he recorded in over 200 manuscripts, and is particularly remembered for numerous advances in medicine through own observations and discoveries. An early proponent of experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor; was appointed a court physician, and served as chief physician of Baghdad and Rey hospitals. He was among the first to use Humoralism to distinguish one contagious disease from another and has been described as doctor's doctor, the father of pediatrics, and a pioneer of ophthalmology.
Biography Colophon of Razi's Book of Medicine. Abu Zayd al-Balkhi. This article is about the scientist. For the poet, see Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi. Abu Zayd Ahmed ibn Sahl Balkhi (Persian: ابو زید احمد بن سهل بلخی) was a Persian Muslim polymath: a geographer, mathematician, physician, psychologist and scientist.
Born in 850 CE in Shamistiyan, in the province of Balkh, Khorasan (in modern day Afghanistan), he was a disciple of al-Kindi. He was also the founder the "Balkhī school" of terrestrial mapping in Baghdad. Works Wikipedia article on mental disorders in the middle ages: Persia, Arabia, the Muslim empire.