Wikipedia entry on mental disorders in the middle ages: Christian Europe. Divinity. Usages Divinity as a quality has two distinct usages: Divine force or power - powers or forces that are universal, or transcend human capacitiesDivinity applied to mortals - qualities of individuals who are considered to have some special access or relationship to the divine.
There are three distinct usages of divinity and divine in religious discourse: Entity In monotheistic faiths, the word divinity is often used to refer to the singular God central to that faith. The terms divinity and divine — uncapitalized, and lacking the definite article — are sometimes used as to denote 'god(s) or certain other beings and entities which fall short of godhood but lie outside the human realm. Divine force or power As previously noted, divinities are closely related to the transcendent force(s) or power(s) credited to them, so much so that in some cases the powers or forces may themselves be invoked independently.
Mortals Christianity Acts 17:29 Romans 1:20 2 Peter 1:3. Devil. The Devil (from Greek: διάβολος or diábolos = slanderer or accuser) is believed in many religions, myths and cultures to be a supernatural entity that is the personification of evil and the enemy of God and humankind.
The nature of the role varies greatly, ranging from being an effective opposite force to the creator god, locked in an eons long struggle for human souls on what may seem even terms (to the point of dualistic ditheism/bitheism), to being a comical figure of fun or an abstract aspect of the individual human condition. While mainstream Judaism contains no overt concept of a devil, Christianity and Islam have variously regarded the Devil as a rebellious fallen angel that tempts humans to sin, if not commit evil deeds himself. In these religions – particularly during periods of division or external threat – the Devil has assumed more of a dualistic status commonly associated with heretics, infidels, and other unbelievers. Etymology Abrahamic religions Judaism Christianity Islam. Transcendence (religion)
Arnaldus de Villa Nova. Arnaldus de Villa Nova (also called Arnau de Vilanova, Arnaldus Villanovanus, Arnaud de Ville-Neuve or Arnaldus de Villanueva, c. 1235–1313) was an alchemist, astrologer and physician.
He is credited with translating a number of medical texts from Arabic, including works by Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Qusta ibn Luqa (Costa ben Luca), and Galen. Many alchemical writings, including Thesaurus Thesaurorum or Rosarius Philosophorum, Novum Lumen, and Flos Florum, are also ascribed to him, but they are of very doubtful authenticity. Collected editions of them were published at Lyon in 1504 and 1532 (with a biography by Symphorianus Campegius), at Basel in 1585, at Frankfurt in 1603, and at Lyon in 1686. Villa Nova is credited with using a Camera Obscura to project live performances for entertainment.  He is also the reputed author of various medical works, including Breviarium Practicae. Arnaldus de Villanova. Trepanning. Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives via Old French and therefrom via Medieval Latin from the Greek noun of relevant meaning trypanon, literally "(a) borer, (an) auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases.
It may also refer to any "burr" hole created through other body surfaces, including nail beds. It is often used to relieve pressure beneath a surface. A trephine is an instrument used for cutting out a round piece of skull bone. There is some contemporary use of the term. In modern eye surgery, a trephine instrument is used in corneal transplant surgery. History Trepanated skull, Neolithic. Dr. 18th-century French illustration of trepanation. Flagellation. In some circumstances the word "flogging" is used loosely to include any sort of corporal punishment, including birching and caning.
However, in British legal terminology, a distinction was drawn (and still is, in one or two colonial territories) between "flogging" (with a cat-o'-nine-tails) and "whipping" (formerly with a whip, but since the early 19th century with a birch). In Britain these were both abolished in 1948. Exorcism. Exorcism (from Greek ἐξορκισμός, exorkismos - binding by oath) is the practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person or an area they are believed to have possessed. Depending on the spiritual beliefs of the exorcist, this may be done by causing the entity to swear an oath, performing an elaborate ritual, or simply by commanding it to depart in the name of a higher power.
The practice is ancient and part of the belief system of many cultures and religions. Requested and performed exorcisms had begun to decline in the United States by the 18th century and occurred rarely until the latter half of the 20th century when the public saw a sharp rise due to the media attention exorcisms were getting. There was “a 50% increase in the number of exorcisms performed between the early 1960s and the mid-1970s”.
Bloodletting. Ancient Greek painting on a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to cure or prevent illness and disease.
Bloodletting was based on an ancient system of medicine in which blood and other bodily fluids were regarded as "humors" that had to remain in proper balance to maintain health. In the ancient world A chart showing the parts of the body to be bled for different diseases, c.1310-1320 "Bleeding" a patient to health was modeled on the process of menstruation. The Talmud recommended a specific day of the week and days of the month for bloodletting, and similar rules, though less codified, can be found among Christian writings advising which saints' days were favourable for bloodletting. Post 10th century Ioannis Sculteti, Armamentium Chirugiae, 1693 — Diagrammed transfusion of sheep's blood. Bartholomeus Anglicus. Bartholomeus Anglicus (Bartholomew of England) (born before 1203–died 1272) was an early 13th-century scholastic scholar of Paris, a member of the Franciscan order.
He was the author of the compendium De proprietatibus rerum ("On the Properties of Things"), dated at 1240, an early forerunner of the encyclopedia. Anglicus also held senior positions within the church and was appointed Bishop of Łuków although he wasn't consecrated to that position. Mass hysteria. Mass hysteria — other names include collective hysteria, group hysteria, or collective obsessional behavior — in sociology and psychology refers to collective delusions of threats to society that spread rapidly through rumors and fear. In medicine the term is used to describe the spontaneous manifestation of the same or similar hysterical physical symptoms by more than one person. A common manifestation of mass hysteria occurs when a group of people believe they are suffering from a similar disease or ailment. Sometimes referred to as mass psychogenic illness or epidemic hysteria. Characteristics Mass hysteria manifesting as collective symptoms of disease is sometimes referred to as mass psychogenic illness or epidemic hysteria.
Dancing mania. Dancing mania (also known as dancing plague, choreomania, St John's Dance and, historically, St.
Vitus' Dance) was a social phenomenon that occurred primarily in mainland Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries. It involved groups of people dancing erratically, sometimes thousands at a time. The mania affected men, women, and children, who danced until they collapsed from exhaustion. Humorism. The four humors Humorism, or humoralism, is a now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids known as humors (UK: humours) in a person directly influences their temperament and health.
From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by Greek, Roman and Persian physicians, and became the most commonly held view of the human body among European physicians until the advent of modern medical research in the nineteenth century. The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile (Gk. melan chole), yellow bile (Gk. chole), phlegm (Gk. phlegma), and blood (Gk. haima), and each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments.
Magic (paranormal) Magic most commonly refers to: