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Mental disorders in the 16th-18th centuries

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Early modern Europe. Abraham Ortelius: Map of Europe, 1595.

Early modern Europe

Early modern Europe is the period in the history of Europe which spanned the centuries between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, roughly the late 15th century to the late 18th century. The early modern period is often considered to have begun with such events as the beginning of the High Renaissance in Italy; the invention of moveable type printing in the 1450s; the Fall of Constantinople in 1453; the end of the Wars of the Roses in 1487; the Voyages of Christopher Columbus and the completion of the Reconquista in 1492 or the start of the Protestant Reformation in 1517.

Its end point is often linked with the outset of the French Revolution in 1789, or with the more nebulous origins of industrialism in late 18th century Britain. As with most periodizations of history, however, the precise dates chosen vary. Characteristics[edit] Periodization[edit] Elizabethan period[edit] Elizabeth ushers in Peace and Plenty. Pauperism. Pauperism (Lat. pauper, poor) is a term meaning poverty or generally the state of being poor, but in English usage particularly the condition of being a "pauper", i.e. in receipt of relief administered under the English Poor Laws.


From this springs a more general sense, referring to all those who are supported at public expense, whether within or outside of almshouses, and still more generally, to all whose existence is dependent for any considerable period upon charitable assistance, whether this assistance be public or private. In this sense the word is to be distinguished from "poverty". Workhouse. Statute of Cambridge 1388. Poorhouse. A poorhouse or workhouse is a government-run (usually by a county or municipality) facility to support and provide housing for the dependent and/or needy.


Workhouses[edit] In England, Wales and Ireland (but not in Scotland[1]) a poorhouse was more commonly known as a workhouse. In early Victorian times (see Poor Law), poverty was seen as a dishonorable state. As depicted by Charles Dickens, a workhouse could resemble a reformatory, often housing whole families, or a penal labour regime giving manual work to the indigent and subjecting them to physical punishment. At a workhouse, men and women were split up with no communication between them. Poor farms[edit] Witch-hunt. A witch-hunt is a search for witches or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic,[1] or mass hysteria.[2] Before 1750 it was legally sanctioned and involving official witchcraft trials.


The classical period of witchhunts in Europe and North America falls into the Early Modern period or about 1480 to 1750, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in an estimated 40,000 to 60,000 executions.[3] The last executions of people convicted as witches in Europe took place in the 18th century. In the Kingdom of Great Britain, witchcraft ceased to be an act punishable by law with the Witchcraft Act of 1735. In Germany, sorcery remained punishable by law into the late 18th century. Contemporary witch-hunts have been reported from Sub-Saharan Africa, India and Papua New Guinea. Age of Enlightenment. The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason;[1] in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. 'the Century of Lights'; and in German: Aufklärung, 'Enlightenment')[2] was an intellectual movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, The Century of Philosophy.[3] The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state.[4][5] In France, the central doctrines of les Lumières were individual liberty and religious tolerance in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church.

Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by the phrase Sapere aude, "Dare to know".[6] Philosophy[edit] Bethlem Royal Hospital. The Bethlem Royal Hospital is a hospital for the treatment of mental illness located in London, United Kingdom and part of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust.

Bethlem Royal Hospital

Although it has moved three times from its original location, it is recognised as Europe's first and oldest institution to specialise in mental illnesses. It has been known by various names including St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlem Hospital, Bethlehem Hospital and, informally and most notoriously, Bedlam. The Hospital is closely associated with King's College London and in partnership with the King's College London Institute of Psychiatry is a major centre for psychiatric research. It is part of both the King's Health Partners academic health science centre and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health. Whip. A leather cat o' nine tails pictured with a U.S. dollar bill for size comparison.


A set of romal reins, featuring a quirt at the end of the romal A whip is a tool traditionally used by humans to exert control over animals or other people, through pain compliance or fear of pain, although in some activities whips can be used without use of pain, such as an additional pressure aid in dressage. Whips are generally of two types, either a firm stick device designed to strike directly, or a flexible whip which must be swung in a specific manner to be effective, but has a longer reach.

There are also whips which combine both a firm stick (the stock or handle) and a flexible line (the lash or thong), such as hunting whips. Wikipedia entry on mental disorders in the 16th-18th centuries. Outline of physical science. Biological classification. The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks.

Biological classification

Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. Modern biological classification has its root in the work of Carolus Linnaeus, who grouped species according to shared physical characteristics. These groupings have since been revised to improve consistency with the Darwinian principle of common descent. With the introduction of the cladistic method in the early 20th century, formalized by Willi Hennig in the mid-20th century, phylogenetic taxonomy in which organisms are grouped purely on inferred evolutionary relatedness (based either on classical evidence of morphology, chemistry, physiology, ecology or molecular evidence or both) has become common in biology.[1] Molecular phylogenetics, which uses DNA sequences as data, has driven many recent revisions and is likely to continue doing so.

Biological classification belongs to the science of biological systematics. Definition[edit] Biological types[edit] Nosology. Nosology (from Ancient Greek νόσος (nosos), meaning "disease", and -λογία (-logia), meaning "study of-") is a branch of medicine that deals with classification of diseases. Types of classification[edit] A chief difficulty in nosology is that diseases often cannot be defined and classified clearly, especially when etiology or pathogenesis are unknown. Thus diagnostic terms often only reflect a symptom or set of symptoms (syndrome). History[edit] Classification of mental disorders. The classification of mental disorders, also known as psychiatric nosology or taxonomy, is a key aspect of psychiatry and other mental health professions and an important issue for people who may be diagnosed.

Classification of mental disorders

There are currently two widely established systems for classifying mental disorders—Chapter V of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) produced by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) produced by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Both list categories of disorders thought to be distinct types, and have deliberately converged their codes in recent revisions so that the manuals are often broadly comparable, although significant differences remain.

Other classification schemes may be in use more locally, for example the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders. Other manuals have some limited use by those of alternative theoretical persuasions, such as the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual. Quakers. Quakers (or Friends, as they refer to themselves) are members of a family of religious movements collectively known as the Religious Society of Friends.


The central unifying doctrine of these movements is the priesthood of all believers,[2][3] a doctrine derived from a verse in the New Testament, 1 Peter 2:9.[4] Most (but not all[5]) Friends view themselves as members of a Christian denomination. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional conservative Quaker understandings of Christianity. Today, around 89% of Friends worldwide practice programmed worship[6]—that is, worship with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, often coordinated by a pastor. William Tuke. William Tuke (24 March 1732 – 1822) was an English businessman, philanthropist and Quaker. He was instrumental in the development of more humane methods in the custody and care of people with mental disorders, an approach that came to be known as moral treatment. Career[edit] Tuke was born in York to a leading Quaker family. He went into the family tea and coffee merchant business that had been started by Mary Tuke in 1725, and she passed it on to him in 1755.

It became part of Twinings tea company after the second world war. In 1754 he married Elizabeth Hoyland, and in 1765 he married Esther Maud whose "talents for leadership, ministerial work and educational advancement became a vital source of influence upon William's son Henry" (Wright, Friends in York, p. 21). Moral treatment. Moral treatment was an approach to mental disorder based on humane psychosocial care or moral discipline that emerged in the 18th century and came to the fore for much of the 19th century, deriving partly from psychiatry or psychology and partly from religious or moral concerns.

Vincenzo Chiarugi. Vincenzo Chiarugi Vincenzo Chiarugi (1759–1820) was an Italian physician who helped introduce humanitarian reforms to the psychiatric hospital care of people with mental disorders. His early part in a movement towards moral treatment was relatively overlooked until a gradual reassessment through the 20th century left his reforms described as a landmark in the history of psychiatry. He also specialized in dermatology and wrote on other subjects. Career[edit] Vincenzo Chiarugi was born in Empoli, near Florence. Jean-Baptiste Pussin. Jean-Baptiste Pussin (1746–1811) was a hospital superintendent who, along with his wife and colleague Marguerite, established more humane treatment of patients with mental disorders in 19th Century France.

They helped physician Philippe Pinel appreciate and implement their approach which, together with similar initiatives in other countries, became known as moral treatment. Events[edit] Jean-Baptiste was born in 1746 in Lons-le-Saunier, France, where he worked as a tanner. Dorothea Dix. Philippe Pinel. Philippe Pinel (French pronunciation: ​[pinɛl]; 20 April 1745 – 25 October 1826) was a French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy.