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Mental disorders in Ancient Greece and Rome

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Wikipedia entry on mental orders in Ancient Greece and Rome. Socrates. Socrates (/ˈsɒkrətiːz/;[2] Greek: Σωκράτης [sɔːkrátɛːs], Sōkrátēs; 470/469 – 399 BC)[1] was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy.

Socrates

Hallucination. Hallucinations can occur in any sensory modality — visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, equilibrioceptive, nociceptive, thermoceptive and chronoceptive.

Hallucination

A mild form of hallucination is known as a disturbance, and can occur in most of the senses above. These may be things like seeing movement in peripheral vision, or hearing faint noises and/or voices. Auditory hallucinations are very common in paranoid schizophrenia. They may be benevolent (telling the patient good things about themselves) or malicious, cursing the patient etc. Auditory hallucinations of the malicious type are frequently heard, for example people talking about the patient behind his/her back. Hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic hallucinations are considered normal phenomena. Hippocrates. Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos (/hɪˈpɒkrəˌtiːz/; Greek: Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

Hippocrates

He is referred to as the father of western medicine[2][3][4] in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields that it had traditionally been associated with (notably theurgy and philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession.[5][6] However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine, and the actions of Hippocrates himself were often commingled; thus very little is known about what Hippocrates actually thought, wrote, and did. Biography[edit] Hippocratic theory[edit] Asclepiades of Bithynia. Life[edit] Asclepiades was born in Prusias in Bithynia.

Asclepiades of Bithynia

Galen. "Claude Galien".

Galen

Lithograph by Pierre Roche Vigneron. (Paris: Lith de Gregoire et Deneux, ca. 1865) Aulus Cornelius Celsus. Aulus Cornelius Celsus Life[edit] Nothing is known about the life of Celsus.

Aulus Cornelius Celsus

Even his praenomen is uncertain; he has been called both Aurelius and Aulus, with the latter being more plausible.[1] Some incidental expressions in his De Medicina suggest that he lived under the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius; which is confirmed by his reference to Themison as being recently in his old age.[2] It is not known with any certainty where he lived. He has been identified as the possible dedicator of a gravestone in Rome, but it has also been supposed that he lived in Narbonese Gaul, because he refers to a species of vine (marcum) which, according to Pliny,[3] was native to that region.[4] It is doubtful whether he practised medicine himself, and although Celsus seems to describe and recommend his own medical observations sanctioned by experience, Quintilian says that his volumes included all sorts of literary matters, and even agriculture and military tactics.[5]

Incubation (ritual) Further reading:

Incubation (ritual)

Exorcism. Exorcism (from Greek ἐξορκισμός, exorkismos - binding by oath) is the practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person or an area they are believed to have possessed.[1] Depending on the spiritual beliefs of the exorcist, this may be done by causing the entity to swear an oath, performing an elaborate ritual, or simply by commanding it to depart in the name of a higher power.

Exorcism

The practice is ancient and part of the belief system of many cultures and religions. Requested and performed exorcisms had begun to decline in the United States by the 18th century and occurred rarely until the latter half of the 20th century when the public saw a sharp rise due to the media attention exorcisms were getting. Incantation. In medieval literature, folklore, fairy tales and modern fantasy fiction, enchantments (from the Old French "enchantement") are charms or spells.

Incantation

The term was loaned into English since around AD 1300. The corresponding native English term being "galdor" "song, spell". It has led to the terms "enchanter" and "enchantress", for those who use enchantments. Jesus ben Ananias. Stoning. Stoning, or lapidation, is a form of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until death ensues.

Stoning

No individual among the group can be identified as the one who kills the subject, yet everyone involved plainly bears some degree of moral culpability. Amulet. Dietitian. Dietitians or dieticians[1] are experts in food and nutrition ("dietetics"). They advise people on what to eat in order to lead a healthy lifestyle or achieve a specific health-related goal.

They work in a variety of settings from clinical to community and public policy to media communications. Registered dietitians (RD), now usually called registered dietitian nutritionists (RDN),[2] are dietitians who meet academic and professional requirements, including earning at least a bachelor's degree, and fulfilling a specially-designed, accredited nutrition curriculum, passing a registration exam, and completing a supervised program of practice at a health care facility, foodservice organization or community agency. Euripides. This article is about the classical Greek tragedian. For the asteroid, see 2930 Euripides. He was also unique among the writers of ancient Athens for the sympathy he demonstrated towards all victims of society, including women.[6][10] His conservative male audiences were frequently shocked by the 'heresies' he put into the mouths of characters, such as these words of his heroine Medea: Sooner would I stand.

Aretaeus of Cappadocia. Aretaeus (Greek: Ἀρεταῖος), is one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, few particulars are known. There is some uncertainty regarding both his age and country, but it seems probable that he practised in the 1st century CE, during the reign of Nero or Vespasian. He is generally styled "the Cappadocian" (Καππάδοξ). Diagnostic method[edit] Aretaeus wrote in Ionic Greek a general treatise on diseases, which is still extant.