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Medieval history of Somalia

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Medieval history. Birth of Islam in the Middle Ages. Somali aristocratic and court titles. This is a list of Somali aristocratic and court titles that were historically used by the Somali people's various sultanates, kingdoms and empires.

Somali aristocratic and court titles

Also included are the honorifics reserved for Islamic notables as well as traditional leaders and officials within the Somali customary law (xeer), in addition to the nobiliary particles set aside for distinguished individuals. Monarchs and aristocrats[edit] Male titles[edit] King of Kings[edit] Rulers[edit] Suldaan: From the Arabic for Sultan. Royal family[edit] Amiir: Prince. Court officials[edit] Female titles[edit] Consorts[edit] Boqorad: Literally translates as "Queen". Royal family[edit] Amiirad: Princess. Religious leaders[edit] Islamic leaders within Somali society were often drawn from or elevated to the noble ranks. Warsangali Sultanate. The Warsangali Sultanate (Somali: Saldanadda Warsangeli, Arabic: سلطنة الورسنجلي‎) was a Somali imperial ruling house centered in northeastern and in some parts of southeastern Somalia.[2] It was one of the largest sultanates ever established in the territory, and, at the height of its power, included the Sanaag region and parts of the northeastern Bari region of the country, an area historically known as Maakhir or the Maakhir Coast.

Warsangali Sultanate

The Sultanate was founded in the late 13th century in northern Somalia by a group of Somalis from the Warsangali branch of the Darod clan, and was ruled by the descendants of the Gerad Dhidhin. In the late 19th century, the influential Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire governed the Sultanate, assuming control during some of its most turbulent years. The Akil Dhahar ruled south of Sanaag and some portions of the Bari region.

Akil Dhahar[edit] I.M. Northern Somali sultanates[edit] In 1896, a challenge of leadership emerged between a father and son. Article V. Walashma dynasty. The Walashma dynasty was a Muslim noble family based in the Horn of Africa.[1][2] It ruled the Ifat and Adal sultanates in what are present-day northern Somalia, Djibouti and eastern Ethiopia.[3] Establishment[edit] The Walashma dynasty was founded by Sultan ʿUmar DunyaHuz "Walashma" (ʿUmar DunyaHuz Aḥmed Mahammad Ḥamid Yūsuf Barkanti Saʿad Muddan Muqābul Ogādēn Absame Kūmade Kablalaḥ Dārōd Ismaʿīl Jaberti).

Walashma dynasty

In most sources, the dynasty is always referred to as Walashma. Sultanate of Mogadishu. The Sultanate of Mogadishu (Somali: Saldanadda Muqdisho, Arabic: سلطنة مقديشو‎) (fl. 10th-16th centuries) was a medieval trading empire in Somalia.

Sultanate of Mogadishu

It rose as one of the pre-eminent powers in the Horn of Africa and the larger East Africa region during the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries, before becoming part of the expanding Ajuran Empire. The Mogadishu Sultanate maintained a vast trading network, dominated the regional gold trade, minted its own coins, and left an extensive architectural legacy in present-day southern Somalia. History[edit] Entrance of a coral stone house in Mogadishu. Ajuuraan state. The Ajuran Sultanate (Somali: Saldanadda Ajuuraan, Arabic: سلطنة أجوران‎), also spelled as the Ajuuraan Sultanate,[1] and often simply as Ajuran,[2] was a Somali Muslim empire[3][4][5] that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa in the Middle Ages.

Ajuuraan state

Through a strong centralized administration and an aggressive military stance towards invaders, the Ajuran Empire successfully resisted an Oromo invasion from the west and a Portuguese incursion from the east during the Gaal Madow and the Ajuran-Portuguese wars. Trading routes dating from the ancient and early medieval periods of Somali maritime enterprise were strengthened or re-established, and foreign trade and commerce in the coastal provinces flourished with ships sailing to and coming from many kingdoms and empires in East Asia, South Asia, Europe, the Near East, North Africa and East Africa.[6]

Ifat Sultanate. The Ifat Sultanate was a medieval Muslim Sultanate in the Horn of Africa.[1][2][3] Led by the Walashma dynasty, it was centered in Zeila and Shewa.

Ifat Sultanate

The kingdom ruled over parts of what is now eastern Ethiopia, Djibouti and northern Somalia. Location[edit] The historian Al-Umari records that Ifat was situated near the Red Sea coast, and states its size as 15 days travel by 20 days travel. Its army numbered 15,000 horsemen and 20,000 foot soldiers. Al-Umari also credits it with seven "mother cities": Belqulzar, Kuljura, Shimi, Shewa, Adal, Jamme and Laboo.[4] Professor Taddesse Tamrat believes Ifat's borders included Fatagar, Dawaro and Bale. History[edit] Approximate location of Ifat circa 1200. Ifat first emerged in the 13th century, when its Sultan Umar Walashma (or his son Ali, according to another source) is recorded as having conquered the Sultanate of Showa in 1285. Despite this setback, the Muslim rulers of Ifat continued their campaign. Adal Sultanate. The Adal Sultanate or Kingdom of Adal (Somali: Saldaanada Cadal, Ge'ez: አዳል ʾAdāl, Arabic: سلطنة عدل‎) was a medieval multi-ethnic Muslim state located in the Horn of Africa from around 1415 to 1577.[2] At its height, the polity controlled large parts of modern-day Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Eritrea.

Adal Sultanate