Could dark matter really be first generation black holes? But did LIGO detect black holes?
There’s a slight problem: It’s not 100 percent certain that the merger in the GW150914 event that LIGO detected were caused by primordial black holes. Lionel London, a professor of physics at Cardiff University and a research associate with LIGO, says in an email that it is just as likely that GW150914 was caused by more traditional black holes formed by the first generation of massive, low-metallicity stars exploding at the end of their short lives. He says that with more LIGO detections, “the work presented by Kashlinsky may be either bolstered or ruled out.” Others in the physics community are urging similar caution.
“I think the paper is pursuing an interesting idea, which is to understand how LIGO's results affect the theory that primordial black holes constitute the dark matter,” says Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, a dark matter expert and professor of physics at the University of Washington. Not everyone is buying it. Chronology of the States of Matter and Phase Transitions. Matter. Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.
This concept of matter may be generalized from atoms to include any objects having mass even when at rest, but this is ill-defined because an object's mass can arise from its (possibly massless) constituents' motion and interaction energies. Thus, matter does not have a universal definition, nor is it a fundamental concept in physics today. Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all observable physical objects. All the objects from everyday life that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are composed of atoms.
Ionization. Ionization (or ionisation, see American and British English spelling differences) is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons.
Ionization, often, results from the interaction of an atom or a molecule with an ionizing particle, including charged particles with sufficient energies and energetic photons. A rare case of ionization in the absence of an external particle is the internal conversion process, through which an excited nucleolus transfers its energy to one of the inner-shell electrons and ejects it with high kinetic energy. The ionization process is of particular interest in fundamental science. It is also encountered in many fields of practical interest, ranging from mass spectroscopy to radiotherapy for eliminating cancer cells.
Obviously, all aspects of the ionization process cannot be addressed in a single encyclopedic article. Ionization energy of atoms and the periodic table Figure 1. Is given by . Wave–particle duality. Researchers find what may be a new state of matter. Think way back to elementary or primary school, somewhere around third-grade physical science, when you first learned about the various states of matter.
At the time you were undoubtedly told that there were three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Solid is where the atoms are tightly packed into some arrangement and vibrate in place; liquids have more freedom of motion and vibration, allowing them to take on any bulk shape; gas molecules had near complete freedom of motion and rarely saw another molecule. Perhaps later you learned about plasma (molecules where the electrons have been completely stripped from the nucleus) as a fourth state, but for most people their education regarding states of matter ends around there. Brian Greene explains some math behind the Higgs Boson. Tiny Twisters Whirl Around Inside Drops of Helium. By Kelly Dickerson Inside a single wheel-shaped droplet of liquid helium rotating 2 million times per second, scientists have spotted a storm of dozens of tiny tornadoes whirling around.
The droplets of liquid heliumspun 100,000 times faster than in any previous experiments. The grid of quantum tornadoes inside the droplets could reveal interesting information on the bizarre nature of “superfluid” liquid helium and the nature of quantum rotation, say the international team of scientists involved in the study.
“The quest for quantum vortices in superfluid droplets has stretched for decades,” Andrey Vilesov, a professor of chemistry at the University of Southern California, said in a statement. Brownian motion.
Antimatter. Caltech physicists uncover novel phase of matter. Physicists Discover New Massless Particle; Could Revolutionize Electronics & Quantum Computing. Hasan pictured with a scanning tunneling spectromicroscope used to find the Weyl fermion.
Danielle Alio/Princeton University. Physics may have just taken a new leap forward, as three independent groups of physicists have found strong evidence for massless particles called “Weyl fermions,” which exist as quasiparticles – collective excitations of electrons. Ultimately, this discovery is over 80 years in the making, dating back to Paul Dirac. In 1928, Dirac came up with an equation that described the spin of fermions (fermions are the building blocks that make up all matter). Within his equation, he discovered that, in relation to particles that have charge and mass, there should be a another particle and antiparticle—what we know as the electron and (its antiparticle) the positron. Yet, there are more than one ways to skin a cat. Other solutions to this equation hinted at more exotic kinds of particles. But now, we have evidence that Weyl fermions actually exist.
Unlocking the Find. What are the States of Matter. Solids, liquids, gases, and plasma are the states of matter we're most familiar with, but have scientists created another?
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