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Language as a mental process

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Socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

Socioeconomic status

When analyzing a family’s SES, the household income, earners' education, and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed.[1] Socioeconomic status is typically broken into three categories, high SES, middle SES, and low SES to describe the three areas a family or an individual may fall into. Paul Broca. Pierre Paul Broca (/broʊˈkɑː/ or /ˈbroʊkə/; 28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, surgeon, anatomist, and anthropologist.

Paul Broca

He was born in Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Gironde. He is best known for his research on Broca's area, a region of the frontal lobe that has been named after him. Broca’s Area is involved with articulated language. His work revealed that the brains of patients suffering from aphasia contained lesions in a particular part of the cortex, in the left frontal region. This was the first anatomical proof of the localization of brain function. Personal life[edit] Expressive aphasia. Expressive aphasia (non-fluent aphasia) is characterized by the loss of the ability to produce language (spoken or written). It is one subset of a larger family of disorders known collectively as aphasia. Expressive aphasia differs from dysarthria, which is typified by a patient's inability to properly move the muscles of the tongue and mouth to produce speech.

Language. A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system.

Language

The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had in order for the later developmental stages to occur. Carl Wernicke. Carl or Karl Wernicke (/ˈvɛərnɨkə/ or /ˈvɛərnɨki/; German: [ˈvɛʁnɪkə]) (15 May 1848 – 15 June 1905) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist.

Carl Wernicke

His first name has long appeared in print in both the Karl and Carl spelling variants (see Charles).[1] Background[edit] He earned his medical degree at the University of Breslau (1870). He later spent six months in Vienna, studying with neuropathologist Theodor Meynert, who would have a profound influence upon Wernicke's career. From 1876 to 1878 he served as a first assistant under Karl Westphal in the clinic for psychiatry and nervous diseases at the Berlin Charité. Studies in aphasia[edit] Shortly after Paul Broca published his findings on language deficits caused by damage to what is now referred to as Broca's area, Wernicke began pursuing his own research into the effects of brain disease on speech and language.

Eponyms[edit] Wernicke aphasia: The eponymous term for receptive or sensory aphasia. Receptive aphasia. Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernicke’s aphasia, fluent aphasia, or sensory aphasia, is a type of aphasia traditionally associated with neurological damage to Wernicke’s area in the brain,[1] (Brodmann area 22, in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere).

Receptive aphasia

However, the key deficits of receptive aphasia do not come from damage to Wernicke's area;[1] instead, most of the core difficulties are proposed to come from damage to the medial temporal lobe and underlying white matter. Damage in this area not only destroys local language regions but also cuts off most of the occipital, temporal, and parietal regions from the core language region.[2] People with receptive aphasia are unable to understand language in its written or spoken form, and even though they can speak with normal grammar, syntax, rate, and intonation, they cannot express themselves meaningfully using language.

Receptive aphasia is not to be confused with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Long-term memory. Long-term memory (LTM) is the final stage of the dual memory model proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin, in which data can be stored for long periods of time.

Long-term memory

While short-term and working memory persists for only about 20 to 30 seconds, information can remain in long term memory indefinitely. According to Mazur (2006), long-term memory has also been called reference memory, because an individual must refer to the information in long-term memory when performing almost any task. Long term memory is commonly broken down into explicit memory (declarative), which includes episodic memory, semantic memory, and autobiographical memory, and implicit memory (procedural memory).

Dual-store memory model[edit] Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model[edit] According to the dual store memory model proposed by Richard C. Short-term memory. Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.

Short-term memory

The duration of short-term memory (when rehearsal or active maintenance is prevented) is believed to be in the order of seconds. A commonly cited capacity is 7 ± 2 elements. Language acquisition.