Kipchak languages. The Kipchak languages (also known as the Kypchak, Qypchaq, or Northwestern Turkic languages) are a branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than twelve million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China.
Linguistic features The Kipchak languages share a number of features that have led linguists to classify them together. Some of these features are shared with other Turkic languages; others are unique to the Kypchak language family. Shared features Change of Proto-Turkic *d to /j/ (e.g. Unique features Extensive labial vowel harmony (e.g. olor vs. olar "them")Frequent fortition (in the form of assibilation) of initial */j/ (e.g. Classification The Kipchak languages may be broken down into three groups, based on geography and shared features: The language of the Mamluks in Egypt appears to have been a Kipchak language, probably one belonging to the Kipchak-Cuman group.
See also  References Krymchak language. The Krymchak language (кърымчах тыльы) is a moribund Turkic language spoken in Crimea by the Krymchak people.
It is often considered to be a Crimean Tatar dialect. The language is sometimes called Judeo-Crimean Tatar. Like most Jewish languages, it contains a large number of Hebrew loanwords. Before the Soviet era, it was written using Hebrew characters. In the Soviet Union in the 1930s, it was written with the Uniform Turkic Alphabet (a variant of the Latin script), like Crimean Tatar and Karaim. The community was decimated during the Holocaust. Karaim language. The Lithuanian dialect of Karaim is spoken mainly in the town of Trakai (also known as Troki) by a small community living there since the 14th century.
There is a chance the language will survive in Trakai as a result of official support and because of its appeal to tourists coming to the Trakai Island Castle, while Karaim presented as the castle ancient defenders. History Karaims in Crimea and Lithuania The origin of the Karaims living in Crimea is subject to much dispute and inconsistency. Difficulty in reconstructing this history stems from the scarcity of documents pertaining to this population. Some scholars say that Karaites in Crimea are descendants of Karaite merchants who migrated to Crimea from the Byzantine Empire (Schur 1995), presumably adopting a Turkic language upon their arrival in Crimea. On the other hand, there is a belief that the Karaims are descendants of Khazars, or later, Kipchak tribes who converted to Karaism (IICK 2007). Language ecology 4. Kumyk language. Kumyk (къумукъ тил, qumuq til) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 365,000 speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation.
Irchi Kazak (Yırçı Qazaq; born 1839) is usually considered to be a founder of Kumyk literature. Kumyk was written using Arabic script until 1928, Latin script from 1928–1938, and Cyrillic script since then. The first regular newspapers and magazines appeared in 1917–18. Currently, the newspaper Ёлдаш (Yoldash, Companion), the successor of the Soviet-era Ленин ёлу (Lenin yolu, Lenin's Path), prints around 5,000 copies 3 times a week.
It was composed sequentially of several Turkic dialects—those of the Oghur, Oghuz and Kypchak types—, which, in addition, have been interacting with Caucasian languages, namely Avar, Dargwa, Chechen, as well as with Ossetic. The language has also been influenced by Russian during the last century. Orthography Latin based alphabet (1927–1937) Cyrillic based alphabet (since 1937) Bibliography Karachay-Balkar language. The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars.
It is divided into two dialects: Karachay-Baksan-Chegem, which pronounces two phonemes as /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, and Balkar, which pronounces the corresponding phonemes as /ts/ and /z/. The modern Karachay-Balkar written language is based on the Karachay-Baksan-Chegem dialect. Alphabet Modern Karachay-Balkar Cyrillic alphabet: Language example Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Karachay-Balkar: Numbers (Karachay-Balkar) Bibliography Chodiyor Doniyorov and Saodat Doniyorova. References Jump up ^ "Население Российской Федерации по владению языками" [Population of the Russian Federation by languages used] (XLS) (in Russian). External links Baraba dialect. Baraba or Baraba Tatar is spoken by at least 8,000 Baraba Tatars in Siberia.
It is a dialect of Siberian Tatar. While middle age and young generation speak Russian and Tatar language, Baraba Tatar language is used by older generation. Geographic Distribution Baraba Tatar is spoken mainly in the Novosibirsk Oblast in Russia. Standard Volga–Ural Tatar is used as the literary language. Differences from Volga–Ural Tatar Baraba Tatar possesses a number of features that distinguish it from Volga–Ural Tatar: Change of /ɕ/ to /ts/: /ɕæɕ/ → /tsæts/ "hair"Devoicing of initial plosives: /bʌʃ/ → /paʃ/ "head"Devoicing of final /z/ to /s/: /sez/ → /sis/ "you (plural)"Lack of sound changes /e/ ↔ /i/ and /o/ ↔ /u/: /jort/ → /jurt/ "home", /kil-/ → /kel-/ "come" Sounds Consonants Sounds in paretheses appear only in loan words.The sounds [ts] and [tʃ] appear in free variation. Vowels See also Siberian Tatars References Tatar language.
Mishar Tatar or Misher Tatar, also Western Tatar (мишәр Mişär, мишәр татар Mişär Tatar, көнбатыш татар könbatış tatar) is a dialect of Tatar spoken by Mishar Tatars mainly located at Penza, Ulyanovsk, Orenburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Volgograd, Saratovoblasts of Russia and in Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Chuvashia, and Mordovia of Russian Federation and Finland.
This is the dialect spoken by the Tatar minority of Finland. The speech of Tatar (or Turkish‐Tatar) people resembles to the accents of Mishar and the dialect of Oghuzs. The origins of Tatar community living in Finland rest upon the merchants coming from Volga‐Ural region of Russia in 1860s and most of the people in this community came from Sergach Mishar Tatar villages in the province of Nizhny Novgorod. The success of the first Tatar migrations caused other villagers to migrate to Finland. Dialects In the Western (Mişär) dialect Ç is pronounced [tʃ] (southern or Lambir Mişärs) and as [ts] (northern Mişärs or Nizhgars).
Crimean Tatar language. Crimean Tatar (Qırımtatarca, Qırımtatar tili, Къырымтатарджа, Къырымтатар тили) is the indigenous language of the Crimean Tatars.
It is a Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada. It should not be confused with Tatar proper, spoken in Russia, to which it is related, but with which it is not mutually intelligible. Number of speakers Today, more than 260,000 Crimean Tatars live in Crimea, and approximately 150,000 are still in exile in Central Asia (mainly in Uzbekistan). An estimated 5 million people of Crimean origin live in Turkey, descendants of those who emigrated in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Almost all Crimean Tatars are bilingual or multilingual with the dominant languages of their respective home countries such as Russian, Ukrainian, Uzbek, Turkish, Finnish, etc.
Dialects History Phonology Vowels Consonants Mamluk. Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king; also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
An Egyptian Mamluk warrior in full armor and armed with lance, shield, sabre and pistols. More specifically, it refers to: While mamluks were purchased, their status was above ordinary slaves, who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. In places such as Egypt from the Ayyubid dynasty to the time of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, mamluks were considered to be “true lords", with social status above freeborn Muslims. Overview The origins of the Mamluk system are disputed.
The use of mamluk soldiers gave rulers troops who had no link to any established power structure. After the fragmentation of the Abbasid Empire, military slaves, known as either mamluks or Ghilman, became the basis of military power throughout the Islamic world. Karakalpak language. Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay.
Ethnic Karakalpaks who live in the viloyatlar of Uzbekistan tend to speak local Uzbek dialects.  Classification Karakalpak is a member of the Kypchak branch of Turkic languages, which includes Tatar, Kumyk, Nogai, and Kazakh. Due to its proximity to Uzbek, much of Karakalpak's vocabulary and grammar has been influenced by Uzbek. Geographic distribution Karakalpak is spoken mainly in the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic of Uzbekistan. Official status Karakalpak has official status in the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic. Dialects The Ethnologue identifies two dialects of Karakalpak: Northeastern and Southwestern.
Sounds Karakalpak has 21 native consonant phonemes and regularly uses four non-native phonemes in loan words. Karakalpak vowels Vowel harmony Vocabulary Personal pronouns Numbers March 2006. Kazakh language. Kazakh (natively Qazaqşa, Қазақша, Қазақ тілі, Qazaq tili, قازاق ٴتىلى; pronounced [qɑˈzɑq tɘˈlɘ]) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak (or Northwestern Turkic) branch, closely related to Kyrgyz, Nogai, and especially Karakalpak.
Kazakh is an agglutinative language, and it employs vowel harmony. Geographic distribution The Kazakh language has its speakers (mainly Kazakhs) spread over a vast territory from the Tian Shan mountains to the western shore of Caspian Sea. Kazakh is the official state language of Kazakhstan, in which nearly 10 million speakers are reported to live (based on the CIA World Factbook's estimates for population and percentage of Kazakh speakers).
In the People's Republic of China, more than one million ethnic Kazakhs and Kazakh speakers reside in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Writing system Kazakh Arabic and Latin script in 1924 Phonology Consonants Vowels Case Pronouns Urum language. Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in diaspora communities worldwide. The Urum language is often considered a variant of the Crimean Tatar language. Sounds Consonants (1) /ts/ is found only in loanwords. (2) /θ/ and /ð/ are found only in loanwords from Greek. Writing system A few manuscripts are known to be written in Urum using Greek characters. During the period between 1927 and 1937, the Urum language was written in reformed Latin characters, the New Turkic Alphabet, and used in local schools; at least one primer is known to have been printed.
In an Urum primer issued in Kiev in 2008 the following alphabet is suggested:  Publications Very little has been published on the Urum language. References Jump up ^ Urum at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)Jump up ^ Казаков, Алексей (December 2000). Cuman language. Cuman (Kuman) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to the today's Kazakh language. The Kipchak language/Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus, and it was a literary language in the Central and Eastern Europe that left a rich literary inheritance. The language became the main language (lingua franca) of the Golden Horde. The Cuman-Kipchaks were nomadic people that lived in the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of Black Sea before the Golden Horde.
Many Cumans were incorporated into other Turkic peoples including the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, and Kumyks. They later had an important role in the history of Hungary, Rumania (see, for example, the Besarab dynasty), Moldavia and Bessarabia. The Cuman language became extinct in early 17th century in the region of Cumania in Hungary, which was its last stronghold. From Codex Cumanicus book, Cuman Kipchak Turkic prayer: Bashkir language. The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле başqort tele, pronounced [baʂ.ˌqʊ̞rt.tɪ̞.ˈlɪ̞] ( )) is co-official with Russian in the Republic of Bashkortostan.
It is part of the Kipchak group of the Turkic languages, and has three dialects: Eastern, Southern and Northwestern. Speakers Speakers of Bashkir mostly live in the Russian republic of Bashkortostan. Many speakers also live in Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Sverdlovsk, Samara and Kurgan Oblasts, Khanty–Mansia, Tatarstan, and Udmurtia. Orthography Bashkirs formerly used Chagatai as a written language. In 1923, a writing system based on the Arabic script was specifically created for the Bashkir language.
The alphabet used by Bashkir is based on the Cyrillic script, with the addition of the following letters: Ә ә [æ], Ө ө [œ], Ү ү [y], Ғ ғ [ɣ], Ҡ ҡ [q], Ң ң [ŋ], Ҙ ҙ [ð], Ҫ ҫ [θ], Һ һ [h]. Phonology Consonants The following table lists the consonantal phonemes of Bashkir. Grammar Declension of nouns References Kipchak language. The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group. The descendants of the Kipchak language include the majority of Turkic languages spoken in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus today, as Kipchak was used as a lingua franca in Golden Horde–ruled lands.
Kazakhs are remnants of Eastern Kipchak tribes who lived in Northern Kazakhstan in the 10th century, but migrated to Europe later. So, their language originates from a more isolated form of earlier Kipchak. Bolgar-speaking Volga Bulgarians (later Kazan Tatars), Astrakhan Tatars, Balkars, Karachays, Kumyks, Cumans (later Crimean Tatars), Bashkirs and Mongolian aristocracy adopted the Kipchak language in the days of the Golden Horde.
See also Notes External links Kyrgyz language. Nogai language. Astrakhan Tatars.