Kipchak languages. The Kipchak languages (also known as the Kypchak, Qypchaq, or Northwestern Turkic languages) are a branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than twelve million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China.
Linguistic features The Kipchak languages share a number of features that have led linguists to classify them together. Some of these features are shared with other Turkic languages; others are unique to the Kypchak language family. Shared features Change of Proto-Turkic *d to /j/ (e.g. Unique features Extensive labial vowel harmony (e.g. olor vs. olar "them")Frequent fortition (in the form of assibilation) of initial */j/ (e.g. Classification The Kipchak languages may be broken down into three groups, based on geography and shared features: Krymchak language. The Krymchak language (кърымчах тыльы) is a moribund Turkic language spoken in Crimea by the Krymchak people.
It is often considered to be a Crimean Tatar dialect. The language is sometimes called Judeo-Crimean Tatar. Like most Jewish languages, it contains a large number of Hebrew loanwords. Before the Soviet era, it was written using Hebrew characters. Karaim language. The Lithuanian dialect of Karaim is spoken mainly in the town of Trakai (also known as Troki) by a small community living there since the 14th century.
There is a chance the language will survive in Trakai as a result of official support and because of its appeal to tourists coming to the Trakai Island Castle, while Karaim presented as the castle ancient defenders. History Karaims in Crimea and Lithuania The origin of the Karaims living in Crimea is subject to much dispute and inconsistency. Kumyk language. Kumyk (къумукъ тил, qumuq til) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 365,000 speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation.
Irchi Kazak (Yırçı Qazaq; born 1839) is usually considered to be a founder of Kumyk literature. Kumyk was written using Arabic script until 1928, Latin script from 1928–1938, and Cyrillic script since then. The first regular newspapers and magazines appeared in 1917–18. Karachay-Balkar language. The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars.
It is divided into two dialects: Karachay-Baksan-Chegem, which pronounces two phonemes as /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, and Balkar, which pronounces the corresponding phonemes as /ts/ and /z/. The modern Karachay-Balkar written language is based on the Karachay-Baksan-Chegem dialect. Alphabet Modern Karachay-Balkar Cyrillic alphabet: Baraba dialect. Baraba or Baraba Tatar is spoken by at least 8,000 Baraba Tatars in Siberia.
It is a dialect of Siberian Tatar. While middle age and young generation speak Russian and Tatar language, Baraba Tatar language is used by older generation. Tatar language. Crimean Tatar language. Crimean Tatar (Qırımtatarca, Qırımtatar tili, Къырымтатарджа, Къырымтатар тили) is the indigenous language of the Crimean Tatars.
It is a Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada. It should not be confused with Tatar proper, spoken in Russia, to which it is related, but with which it is not mutually intelligible. Mamluk. Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king; also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
An Egyptian Mamluk warrior in full armor and armed with lance, shield, sabre and pistols. More specifically, it refers to: While mamluks were purchased, their status was above ordinary slaves, who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. In places such as Egypt from the Ayyubid dynasty to the time of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, mamluks were considered to be “true lords", with social status above freeborn Muslims. Overview The origins of the Mamluk system are disputed. The use of mamluk soldiers gave rulers troops who had no link to any established power structure. Karakalpak language. Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay.
Ethnic Karakalpaks who live in the viloyatlar of Uzbekistan tend to speak local Uzbek dialects.  Classification Karakalpak is a member of the Kypchak branch of Turkic languages, which includes Tatar, Kumyk, Nogai, and Kazakh. Due to its proximity to Uzbek, much of Karakalpak's vocabulary and grammar has been influenced by Uzbek. Kazakh language. Kazakh (natively Qazaqşa, Қазақша, Қазақ тілі, Qazaq tili, قازاق ٴتىلى; pronounced [qɑˈzɑq tɘˈlɘ]) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak (or Northwestern Turkic) branch, closely related to Kyrgyz, Nogai, and especially Karakalpak.
Kazakh is an agglutinative language, and it employs vowel harmony. Geographic distribution The Kazakh language has its speakers (mainly Kazakhs) spread over a vast territory from the Tian Shan mountains to the western shore of Caspian Sea. Urum language. Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in diaspora communities worldwide. The Urum language is often considered a variant of the Crimean Tatar language. Sounds Consonants (1) /ts/ is found only in loanwords. (2) /θ/ and /ð/ are found only in loanwords from Greek. Writing system A few manuscripts are known to be written in Urum using Greek characters. During the period between 1927 and 1937, the Urum language was written in reformed Latin characters, the New Turkic Alphabet, and used in local schools; at least one primer is known to have been printed.
Cuman language. Cuman (Kuman) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to the today's Kazakh language. The Kipchak language/Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus, and it was a literary language in the Central and Eastern Europe that left a rich literary inheritance.
The language became the main language (lingua franca) of the Golden Horde. The Cuman-Kipchaks were nomadic people that lived in the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of Black Sea before the Golden Horde. Many Cumans were incorporated into other Turkic peoples including the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, and Kumyks. Bashkir language. The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле başqort tele, pronounced [baʂ.ˌqʊ̞rt.tɪ̞.ˈlɪ̞] ( )) is co-official with Russian in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Kipchak language. The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group. The descendants of the Kipchak language include the majority of Turkic languages spoken in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus today, as Kipchak was used as a lingua franca in Golden Horde–ruled lands. Kazakhs are remnants of Eastern Kipchak tribes who lived in Northern Kazakhstan in the 10th century, but migrated to Europe later. So, their language originates from a more isolated form of earlier Kipchak.
Kyrgyz language. Nogai language. Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. Three distinct dialects are recognized: Qara-Nogay (Black or Northern Nogay), spoken in Dagestan; Nogai Proper, in Stavropol; and Aqnogay (White or Western Nogay), by the Kuban River, its tributaries in Karachay–Cherkessia, and in the Mineralnye Vody District.
Qara-Nogay and Nogai Proper are very close linguistically, while Aqnogay shows more differences. Astrakhan Tatars. Astrakhan Tatars (Tatar: Əsterxan tatarları, Әsterhan tatarlary) are a subgroup of the Tatar people. In the 15th to 17th century the Astrakhan Tatars inhabited the Astrakhan Khanate (1459 - 1556), which was also inhabited by the Nogai Horde, and the Astrakhan Tatars experienced a profound effect on Nogais. Since the 18th century there has been an increased interaction and ethnic mix of the Astrakhan Tatars with Volga Tatars.