Kipchak Turkic languages
The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northwestern Turkic languages), are a branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than twelve million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. Linguistic features The Kypchak languages share a number of features that have led linguists to classify them together. Some of these features are shared with other Turkic languages; others are unique to the Kypchak language family. Kipchak languages
The Krymchak language (кърымчах тыльы) is a Turkic language spoken in Crimea by the Krymchak people. It is often considered to be a Crimean Tatar dialect. The language is sometimes referred to as Judeo-Crimean Tatar. Like most Jewish languages, it contains a large number of Hebrew loanwords. Before the Soviet era it was written using Hebrew characters. In the Soviet Union in the 1930s this language was written with the Uniform Turkic Alphabet (a variant of the Latin script), like Crimean Tatar and Karaim). Krymchak language
Karaim language The Lithuanian dialect of Karaim is spoken mainly in the town of Trakai (also known as Troki) by a small community living there since the 14th century. There is a chance the language will survive in Trakai as a result of official support and because of its appeal to tourists coming to the Trakai Island Castle, while Karaim presented as the castle ancient defenders. History Karaims in Crimea and Lithuania
Kumyk language Kumyk (къумукъ тил, qumuq til) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 365,000 speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. Irchi Kazak (Yırçı Qazaq; born 1839) is usually considered to be a founder of Kumyk literature. Kumyk was written using Arabic script until 1928, Latin script from 1928–1938, and Cyrillic script since then. The first regular newspapers and magazines appeared in 1917–18. Currently, the newspaper Ёлдаш (Yoldash, Companion), the successor of the Soviet-era Ленин ёлу (Lenin yolu, Lenin's Path), prints around 5,000 copies 3 times a week. It was composed sequentially of several Turkic dialects—those of the Oghur, Oghuz and Kypchak types—, which, in addition, have been interacting with Caucasian languages, namely Avar, Dargwa, Chechen, as well as with Ossetic. The language has also been influenced by Russian during the last century.
The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars. It is divided into two dialects: Karachay-Baksan-Chegem, which pronounces two phonemes as /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, and Balkar, which pronounces the corresponding phonemes as /ts/ and /z/. The modern Karachay-Balkar written language is based on the Karachay-Baksan-Chegem dialect. Alphabet Karachay-Balkar language
Baraba or Baraba Tatar is spoken by at least 8,000 Baraba Tatars in Siberia. It is a dialect of Siberian Tatar. Geographic Distribution Baraba dialect
Tatar language (татар теле, татарча, tatar tele, tatarça, تاتار تيلی) is a Turkic language spoken by Volga Tatars mainly located at modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. It should not be confused with the Crimean Tatar language, to which it is remotely related but with which it is not mutually intelligible. Geographic distribution Tatar is spoken in Russia (about 5.3 million people), Central Asia, the Ukraine, China, Finland, Turkey and other countries. Tatar is also native for some thousands of Maris. Tatar language
Crimean Tatar language Crimean Tatar (Qırımtatarca, Qırımtatar tili, Къырымтатарджа, Къырымтатар тили) is the indigenous language of the Crimean Tatars. It is a Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada. It should not be confused with Tatar proper, spoken in Russia, to which it is related, but with which it is not mutually intelligible.
Mamluk Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king; also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves. An Egyptian Mamluk warrior in full armor and armed with lance, shield, sabre and pistols. More specifically, it refers to: While mamluks were purchased, their status was above ordinary slaves, who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. In places such as Egypt from the Ayyubid dynasty to the time of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, mamluks were considered to be “true lords", with social status above freeborn Muslims. Overview
Karakalpak language Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. Ethnic Karakalpaks who live in the viloyatlar of Uzbekistan tend to speak local Uzbek dialects. Classification Karakalpak is a member of the Kypchak branch of Turkic languages, which includes Tatar, Kumyk, Nogai, and Kazakh.
Kazakh (natively Qazaqşa, Қазақша, Қазақ тілі, Qazaq tili, قازاق ٴتىلى; pronounced [qɑˈzɑq tɘˈlɘ]) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak (or Northwestern Turkic) branch, closely related to Kyrgyz, Nogai, and especially Karakalpak. Kazakh is an agglutinative language, and it employs vowel harmony. Geographic distribution Kazakh language
Urum language Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in diaspora communities worldwide. The Urum language is often considered a variant of the Crimean Tatar language. The name Urum is derived from Rûm ("Rome"), the term for the Byzantine empire in the Muslim world.
Cuman (Kuman) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to the today's Kazakh language. The Kipchak language/Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus, and it was a literary language in the Central and Eastern Europe that left a rich literary inheritance. The language became the main language (lingua franca) of the Golden Horde. The Cuman-Kipchaks were nomadic people that lived in the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of Black Sea before the Golden Horde. Many Cumans were incorporated into other Turkic peoples including the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, and Kumyks. Cuman language
The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле başqort tele, pronounced [baʂ.ˌqʊ̞rt.tɪ̞.ˈlɪ̞] ( )) is co-official with Russian in the Republic of Bashkortostan. It is part of the Kipchak group of the Turkic languages, and has three dialects: Eastern, Southern and Northwestern. Bashkir language
The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group. The descendants of the Kipchak language include the majority of Turkic languages spoken in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus today, as Kipchak was used as a lingua franca in Golden Horde–ruled lands. Kazakhs are remnants of Eastern Kipchak tribes who lived in Northern Kazakhstan in the 10th century, but migrated to Europe later. Kipchak language