Kipchak Turkic languages
Kipchak languages. The Kipchak languages (also known as the Kypchak, Qypchaq, or Northwestern Turkic languages) are a branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than twelve million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China.
Linguistic features The Kipchak languages share a number of features that have led linguists to classify them together. Some of these features are shared with other Turkic languages; others are unique to the Kypchak language family. Krymchak language. The Krymchak language (кърымчах тыльы) is a moribund Turkic language spoken in Crimea by the Krymchak people.
It is often considered to be a Crimean Tatar dialect. The language is sometimes called Judeo-Crimean Tatar. Like most Jewish languages, it contains a large number of Hebrew loanwords. Before the Soviet era, it was written using Hebrew characters. In the Soviet Union in the 1930s, it was written with the Uniform Turkic Alphabet (a variant of the Latin script), like Crimean Tatar and Karaim. Karaim language. The Lithuanian dialect of Karaim is spoken mainly in the town of Trakai (also known as Troki) by a small community living there since the 14th century.
There is a chance the language will survive in Trakai as a result of official support and because of its appeal to tourists coming to the Trakai Island Castle, while Karaim presented as the castle ancient defenders. History Karaims in Crimea and Lithuania Kumyk language. Kumyk (къумукъ тил, qumuq til) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 365,000 speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation.
Irchi Kazak (Yırçı Qazaq; born 1839) is usually considered to be a founder of Kumyk literature. Kumyk was written using Arabic script until 1928, Latin script from 1928–1938, and Cyrillic script since then. The first regular newspapers and magazines appeared in 1917–18. Currently, the newspaper Ёлдаш (Yoldash, Companion), the successor of the Soviet-era Ленин ёлу (Lenin yolu, Lenin's Path), prints around 5,000 copies 3 times a week. It was composed sequentially of several Turkic dialects—those of the Oghur, Oghuz and Kypchak types—, which, in addition, have been interacting with Caucasian languages, namely Avar, Dargwa, Chechen, as well as with Ossetic. The language has also been influenced by Russian during the last century.
Karachay-Balkar language. The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars.
It is divided into two dialects: Karachay-Baksan-Chegem, which pronounces two phonemes as /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, and Balkar, which pronounces the corresponding phonemes as /ts/ and /z/. The modern Karachay-Balkar written language is based on the Karachay-Baksan-Chegem dialect. Alphabet Baraba dialect. Baraba or Baraba Tatar is spoken by at least 8,000 Baraba Tatars in Siberia.
It is a dialect of Siberian Tatar. While middle age and young generation speak Russian and Tatar language, Baraba Tatar language is used by older generation. Geographic Distribution Tatar language. Mishar Tatar or Misher Tatar, also Western Tatar (мишәр Mişär, мишәр татар Mişär Tatar, көнбатыш татар könbatış tatar) is a dialect of Tatar spoken by Mishar Tatars mainly located at Penza, Ulyanovsk, Orenburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Volgograd, Saratovoblasts of Russia and in Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Chuvashia, and Mordovia of Russian Federation and Finland.
This is the dialect spoken by the Tatar minority of Finland. The speech of Tatar (or Turkish‐Tatar) people resembles to the accents of Mishar and the dialect of Oghuzs. The origins of Tatar community living in Finland rest upon the merchants coming from Volga‐Ural region of Russia in 1860s and most of the people in this community came from Sergach Mishar Tatar villages in the province of Nizhny Novgorod. The success of the first Tatar migrations caused other villagers to migrate to Finland. Crimean Tatar language. Crimean Tatar (Qırımtatarca, Qırımtatar tili, Къырымтатарджа, Къырымтатар тили) is the indigenous language of the Crimean Tatars.
It is a Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada. It should not be confused with Tatar proper, spoken in Russia, to which it is related, but with which it is not mutually intelligible. Mamluk. Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king; also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
An Egyptian Mamluk warrior in full armor and armed with lance, shield, sabre and pistols. More specifically, it refers to: While mamluks were purchased, their status was above ordinary slaves, who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. In places such as Egypt from the Ayyubid dynasty to the time of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, mamluks were considered to be “true lords", with social status above freeborn Muslims. Overview Karakalpak language. Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay.
Ethnic Karakalpaks who live in the viloyatlar of Uzbekistan tend to speak local Uzbek dialects.  Classification Karakalpak is a member of the Kypchak branch of Turkic languages, which includes Tatar, Kumyk, Nogai, and Kazakh. Kazakh language. Kazakh (natively Qazaqşa, Қазақша, Қазақ тілі, Qazaq tili, قازاق ٴتىلى; pronounced [qɑˈzɑq tɘˈlɘ]) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak (or Northwestern Turkic) branch, closely related to Kyrgyz, Nogai, and especially Karakalpak. Kazakh is an agglutinative language, and it employs vowel harmony. Geographic distribution Urum language. Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in diaspora communities worldwide.
The Urum language is often considered a variant of the Crimean Tatar language. Sounds Cuman language. Cuman (Kuman) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to the today's Kazakh language. The Kipchak language/Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus, and it was a literary language in the Central and Eastern Europe that left a rich literary inheritance. The language became the main language (lingua franca) of the Golden Horde. The Cuman-Kipchaks were nomadic people that lived in the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of Black Sea before the Golden Horde.
Many Cumans were incorporated into other Turkic peoples including the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, and Kumyks. Bashkir language. The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле başqort tele, pronounced [baʂ.ˌqʊ̞rt.tɪ̞.ˈlɪ̞] ( )) is co-official with Russian in the Republic of Bashkortostan. It is part of the Kipchak group of the Turkic languages, and has three dialects: Eastern, Southern and Northwestern. Kipchak language. The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group.
The descendants of the Kipchak language include the majority of Turkic languages spoken in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus today, as Kipchak was used as a lingua franca in Golden Horde–ruled lands. Kazakhs are remnants of Eastern Kipchak tribes who lived in Northern Kazakhstan in the 10th century, but migrated to Europe later. Kyrgyz language. Nogai language. Astrakhan Tatars.