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Active citizenship. Active citizenship refers to a philosophy espoused by organizations and educational institutions which advocates that members of companies or nation-states have certain roles and responsibilities to society and the environment , although those members may not have specific governing roles.

Active citizenship

Active citizenship can be seen as an articulation of the debate over rights versus responsibilities . If a body gives rights to the people under its remit, then those same people might have certain responsibilities to uphold. This would be most obvious at a country or nation-state level, but could also be wider, such as global citizenship . The implication is that an active citizen is one who fulfills both their rights and responsibilities in a balanced way.

A problem with this concept is that although rights are often written down as part of law, responsibilities are not as well defined, and there may be disagreements amongst the citizens as to what the responsibilities are. Fairness. Fairness or being fair may refer to:


Justice (virtue) Justice is one of the four cardinal virtues in classical European philosophy and Roman Catholicism.

Justice (virtue)

It is the moderation or mean between selfishness and selflessness - between having more and having less than one's fair share.[1] In Aristotle's wake,[2] Thomas Aquinas developed a theory of proportional reciprocity, whereby the just man renders to each and all what is due to them in due proportion: what it is their moral and legal rights to do, possess, or exact.[3] Macrobius saw Justice as existing on four different planes or levels, rising from the everyday political virtue at the lowest to the Archetypal Form of Justice at the highest.[5] Leadership. Theories[edit] Early western history[edit] The trait theory was explored at length in a number of works in the 19th century.


Most notable are the writings of Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton, whose works have prompted decades of research.[4] In Heroes and Hero Worship (1841), Carlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. In Galton's Hereditary Genius (1869), he examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when moving from first degree to second degree relatives, Galton concluded that leadership was inherited.

Rise of alternative theories[edit] In the late 1940s and early 1950s, however, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e.g., Bird, 1940;[5] Stogdill, 1948;[6] Mann, 1959[7]) prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. Loyalty. There are many aspects to loyalty.


John Kleinig, professor of Philosophy at City University of New York, observes that over the years the idea has been treated by writers from Aeschylus through John Galsworthy to Joseph Conrad, by psychologists, psychiatrists, sociologists, scholars of religion, political economists, scholars of business and marketing, and — most particularly — by political theorists, who deal with it in terms of loyalty oaths and patriotism.

As a philosophical concept, loyalty was largely untreated by philosophers until the work of Josiah Royce, the "grand exception" in Kleinig's words.[1] John Ladd, professor of Philosophy at Brown University writing in the Macmillan Encyclopaedia of Philosophy in 1967, observes that by that time the subject had received "scant attention in philosophical literature". Early concepts[edit] Confucianism in China[edit] (Zhong)Often cited as one of the many virtues of Confucianism, meaning to do the best you can do for others. Social responsibility.

Social responsibility is an ethical theory that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act to benefit society at large.

Social responsibility

Social responsibility is a duty every individual has to perform so as to maintain a balance between the economy and the ecosystems. A trade-off may[citation needed] exist between economic development, in the material sense, and the welfare of the society and environment. Social responsibility means sustaining the equilibrium between the two. It pertains not only to business organizations but also to everyone whose any action impacts the environment.[1] This responsibility can be passive, by avoiding engaging in socially harmful acts, or active, by performing activities that directly advance social goals. Student social responsibility[edit] Student social responsibility is the responsibility of every student for his/her actions. Teamwork. Hauling in a mooring line.


Problems solving: Strategy formulation Problems solving: Team coordination Teamwork is "work done by several associates with each doing a part but all subordinating personal prominence to the efficiency of the whole" .[1] In a business setting accounting techniques may be used to provide financial measures of the benefits of teamwork which are useful for justifying the concept.[2] Teamwork is increasingly advocated by health care policy makers as a means of assuring quality and safety in the delivery of services; a committee of the Institute of Medicine recommended in 2000 that patient safety programs "establish interdisciplinary team training programs for providers that incorporate proven methods of team training, such as simulation. Processes[edit] Researchers have identified 10 teamwork processes that fall into three categories:[8][9] Training to improve teamwork[edit] As in a 2008 review, "team training promotes teamwork and enhances team performance.