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Joints of the Human body

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A joint or articulation (or articulate surface) is the location at which bones connect.[1][2] They are constructed to allow movement (except for skull, sacral, sternal, and pelvic bones) and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.

Joint. A joint or articulation (or articulate surface) is the location at which bones connect.[1][2] They are constructed to allow movement (except for skull, sacral, sternal, and pelvic bones) and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.[3][page needed] Classification[edit] Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally.

Joint

Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications. Terms ending in the suffix -sis are singular and refer to just one joint, while -ses is the suffix for pluralization. An articulate facet is generally seen as a small joint, especially used when speaking of the joints of the ribs.[4][5] Structural classification (binding tissue)[edit] Functional classification (movement)[edit] Biomechanical classification[edit]

Abduction and Adduction. Ligament. In anatomy, a ligament is the fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones and is also known as articular ligament, articular larua,[1] fibrous ligament, or true ligament.

Ligament

Ligament can also refer to: Peritoneal ligament: a fold of peritoneum or other membranes.Fetal remnant ligament: the remnants of a fetal tubular structure.Periodontal ligament: a group of fibers that attach the cementum of teeth to the surrounding alveolar bone. The study of ligaments is known as desmology (from Greek δεσμός, desmos, "bond"; and -λογία, -logia). Ligaments are similar to tendons and fasciae as they are all made of connective tissue. The differences in them are in the connections that they make; ligaments connect one bone to another bone, tendons connect muscle to bone and fasciae connect muscles to other muscles. Articular ligaments[edit] Capsular ligaments are part of the articular capsule that surrounds synovial joints. The consequence of a broken ligament can be instability of the joint.

History

Classification. Joints of the Skull. Vertebral joints. Thoracic joints. Joints of the upper Limbs. Joints of the lower Limbs. Joint disorders. Kinesiology. A series of images that represent research (left) and practice (right) in the field of kinesiology.

Kinesiology

Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the scientific study of human movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, mechanical, and psychological mechanisms. Applications of kinesiology to human health include biomechanics and orthopedics; strength and conditioning; sport psychology; methods of rehabilitation, such as physical and occupational therapy; and sport and exercise.[1] Individuals who have earned degrees in kinesiology can work in research, the fitness industry, clinical settings, and in industrial environments.[2] Studies of human and animal motion include measures from motion tracking systems, electrophysiology of muscle and brain activity, various methods for monitoring physiological function, and other behavioral and cognitive research techniques.[3][4] Basics[edit] The world's first kinesiology department was launched in 1967 at the University of Waterloo, Canada.[8]

Anatomical terms of motion. In general, motion is classified according to the anatomical plane it occurs in.

Anatomical terms of motion

Flexion and extension are examples of angular motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together or moved further apart. Rotational motion may occur at other joints, for example the shoulder, and are described as internal or external. Other terms, such as elevation and depression, refer to movement above or below the horizontal plane.

Many anatomical terms derive from Latin terms with the same meaning. Classification[edit] Motions are classified after the anatomical planes they occur in, although movement is more often than not a combination of different motions occurring simultaneously in several planes. Apart from this motions can also be divided into: Linear motions (or translatory motions), which move in a line between two points. The study of movement is known as kinesiology. Abnormal motion[edit] General motion[edit]