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Diseases, disorders and infections of the Gastrointestinal tract

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Dysbiosis. Dysbiosis (also called dysbacteriosis) refers to microbial imbalance on or inside the body.[1] Dysbiosis is most commonly reported as a condition in the digestive tract.


It has been associated with illnesses, such as inflammatory bowel disease[3],[4][5] chronic fatigue syndrome,[6] obesity,[7][8] cancer[9][10] and colitis.[11] Microbial colonies found on or in the body are normally benign or beneficial. These beneficial and appropriately sized microbial colonies carry out a series of helpful and necessary functions, such as aiding in digestion.[12] They also protect the body from the penetration of pathogenic microbes. These beneficial microbial colonies compete with each other for space and resources and outnumber human cells by a factor 10:1.[13] The term "dysbiosis" is not a standardized medical term. Causes[edit] Dysbiosis may be caused by such diverse things as repeated and inappropriate antibiotic exposure,[15] alcohol misuse,[16][17] or inappropriate diet.[18] Coeliac disease. Upon exposure to gliadin, and specifically to three peptides found in prolamins, the enzyme tissue transglutaminase modifies the protein, and the immune system cross-reacts with the small-bowel tissue, causing an inflammatory reaction.

Coeliac disease

That leads to a truncating of the villi lining the small intestine (called villous atrophy). This interferes with the absorption of nutrients because the intestinal villi are responsible for absorption. The only known effective treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet.[5] While the disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as wheat allergy. This condition has several other names, including cœliac disease (with œ ligature), c(o)eliac sprue, nontropical sprue, endemic sprue, and gluten enteropathy. Cholera. Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.


The main symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting. This may result in dehydration and in severe cases grayish-bluish skin.[1] Transmission occurs primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by the feces (waste product) of an infected person, including one with no apparent symptoms. The severity of the diarrhea and vomiting can lead to rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, and death in some cases. The primary treatment is oral rehydration therapy, typically with oral rehydration solution, to replace water and electrolytes. If this is not tolerated or does not provide improvement fast enough, intravenous fluids can also be used. Worldwide, it affects 3–5 million people and causes 100,000–130,000 deaths a year as of 2010[update]. Signs and symptoms A person with severe dehydration due to cholera.

Typical "rice water" diarrhea Cause Susceptibility Transmission Mechanism Vaccine. Diarrhea. Diarrhea or diarrhœa (from the Greek διάρροια, δια dia "through" + ρέω rheo "flow" meaning "flowing through")[2] is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day.[3] The most common cause is gastroenteritis.


Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with modest amounts of salts and zinc tablets are the treatment of choice and have been estimated to have saved 50 million children in the past 25 years.[1] In cases where ORS is not available, homemade solutions are often used. It is a common cause of death in developing countries and the second most common cause of infant deaths worldwide. The loss of fluids through diarrhea can cause dehydration and electrolyte disturbances such as potassium deficiency or other salt imbalances. In 2009 diarrhea was estimated to have caused 1.1 million deaths in people aged 5 and over[4] and 1.5 million deaths in children under the age of 5.[1] Definition Secretory Osmotic Exudative. Enteric duplication cyst. Enteric duplication cysts, sometimes simply called duplication cysts, are rare congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract.[1] They most frequently occur in the small intestine, particularly the ileum, but can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract.[1] They may be cystic or tubular in conformation.[2] The condition of having duplication cysts has been called intestinal duplication.[3] Symptoms[edit] Treatment[edit] Duplications are usually removed surgically, even if they are found incidentally (i.e. not causing symptoms or encountered on routine studies for other reasons), as there is a high incidence of complications resulting from untreated cases.[4] Cysts are often technically easier to remove than tubular malformations since tubular structures usually share a blood supply with the associated gut.[2] References[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b Tong SC, Pitman M, Anupindi SA (2002).

Enteric duplication cyst

External links[edit] Gastrointestinal duplications at Medscape. Giardiasis. Giardiasis (popularly known as beaver fever[1]) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (also sometimes called Giardia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis).[2] The giardia organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal species, as well as humans.


Irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or spastic colon is a symptom-based diagnosis.

Irritable bowel syndrome

It is characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits. Diarrhea or constipation[1] may predominate, or they may alternate (classified as IBS-D, IBS-C, or IBS-A, respectively). A diagnosis of IBS may be made on the basis of symptoms, in the absence of worrisome features such as age of onset greater than 50 years, weight loss, bloody stool, signs of infection or colitis, or family history of inflammatory bowel disease.[8][9] Routine testing yield no abnormalities, although the bowels may be more sensitive to certain stimuli, such as balloon insufflation testing.

Although no cure for IBS is known, treatments to relieve symptoms exist. Pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is defined as inflammation of the pancreas.


It has several causes and symptoms and requires immediate medical attention. It occurs when pancreatic enzymes (especially trypsin) that digest food are activated in the pancreas instead of the small intestine. It may be acute—beginning suddenly and lasting a few days, or chronic—occurring over many years. Peptic ulcer. A peptic ulcer is a distinct breach in the mucosal lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the first part of the small intestine (duodenal ulcer),[1] a result of caustic effects of acid and pepsin in the lumen.

Peptic ulcer

Histologically, peptic ulcer is identified as necrosis of the mucosa which produces lesions equal to or greater than 0.5 cm (1/5"). Yellow fever. The disease is caused by the yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of the female mosquito.[2] It only infects humans, other primates and several species of mosquito.[2] In cities it is primarily spread by mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti species.[2] The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus.[3] The disease may be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses, especially in the early stages.[2] To confirm a suspected case blood sample testing with PCR is required.[4] Signs and symptoms[edit] Yellow fever begins after an incubation period of three to six days.[7] Most cases only cause a mild infection with fever, headache, chills, back pain, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.[8] In these cases the infection lasts only three to four days.

Yellow fever

In fifteen percent of cases, however, sufferers enter a second, toxic phase of the disease with recurring fever, this time accompanied by jaundice due to liver damage, as well as abdominal pain. Helicobacter pylori. Gastrointestinal disease. Symptoms. Imaging.