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Indigenous peoples

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Indigenous people are people defined in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory, and their cultural or historical distinctiveness from other populations that are often politically dominant.[1] The concept of indigenous people defines these groups as particularly vulnerable to exploitation, marginalization and oppression by nation states that may still be formed from the colonising populations, or by politically dominant ethnic groups.

As a result, a special set of political rights in accordance with international law have been set forth by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.[2] The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to guide member-state national policies to collective rights of indigenous people—such as culture, identity, language, and access to employment, health, education, and natural resources.

Although no definitive definition of "indigenous peoples" exists, estimates put the total population of indigenous peoples from 220 million to 350 million.

This is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native peoples. Indigenous peoples are any ethnic group of peoples who are considered to fall under one of the internationally recognized definitions of Indigenous peoples, such as United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, i.e. "those ethnic groups that were indigenous to a territory prior to being incorporated into a national state, and who are politically and culturally separate from the majority ethnic identity of the state that they are a part of".[1]

Note that this is a listing of peoples, groups and communities. Many of the names are externally imposed, and are not those the people identify within their cultures. As John Trudell observed, "They change our name and treat us the same." Basic to the unethical treatment of indigenous peoples is an insistence that the original inhabitants of the land are not permitted to name themselves. Many tribal groups have reasserted their traditional self-identifying names in recent times,[2] in a process of geographical renaming where "The place-name changes herald a new era, in which Aboriginal people have increasing control over the right to name and govern their homelands."[3]

This list is grouped by region, and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (example: Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (that is, the boundaries of each region are not always clear and some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).

Indigenous peoples. Indigenous people are people defined in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory, and their cultural or historical distinctiveness from other populations that are often politically dominant.[1] The concept of indigenous people defines these groups as particularly vulnerable to exploitation, marginalization and oppression by nation states that may still be formed from the colonising populations, or by politically dominant ethnic groups. Terms and etymologies[edit] Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are: aboriginal, native, original, first, and hereditary owners in indigenous law.

Definition of indigeneity[edit] There is no single, universally accepted definition of the term "indigenous peoples"; however, the four most often invoked elements are:[7] Academics who define indigenous peoples as "living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others. 1.

Definition of Indigeneity

Population and distribution. Terms ands Etymologys. Historical cultures. Indigenous people by region. Rights, issues, and concerns. Traditional knowledge. Traditional knowledge (TK), indigenous knowledge (IK), traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities. Traditional knowledge includes types of knowledge about traditional technologies of subsistence (e.g. tools and techniques for hunting or agriculture), midwifery, ethnobotany and ecological knowledge, celestial navigation, ethnoastronomy,the climate etc.

These kinds of knowledge are crucial for the subsistence and survival and are generally based on accumulations of empirical observation and interaction with the environment. In many cases, traditional knowledge has been orally passed for generations from person to person. Some forms of traditional knowledge are expressed through stories, legends, folklore, rituals, songs, and even laws. Other forms of traditional knowledge are expressed through different means.[1] Characteristics[edit] Property rights[edit] Knowledge and Culture.

Viewpoints

Genocide of indigenous peoples. Genocide of indigenous peoples is the genocidal destruction of indigenous peoples, understood as ethnic minorities whose territory has been occupied by colonial expansion or the formation of a nation state,[Note 1] by a dominant political group such as a colonial power or a nation state. While the concept of genocide was formulated by Raphael Lemkin in the mid-20th century, acts of genocidal violence against indigenous groups frequently occurred in the Americas, Australia, Africa and Asia with the expansion of various European colonial powers such as the Spanish and British empires, and the subsequent establishment of nation states on indigenous territory.

According to Lemkin, colonization was in itself "intrinsically genocidal". He saw this genocide as a two-stage process, the first being the destruction of the indigenous population's way of life. In the second stage, the newcomers impose their way of life on the minority group. Genocide debate[edit] (a) Killing members of the group; Uncontacted peoples. History[edit] Modern[edit] Asia[edit] Andaman Islands, India[edit] Two tribes of the Andaman Islands, in India, have sought to avoid contact with the outside world. Sentinelese people[edit] The Sentinelese continue to actively and violently reject contact. It is estimated that they have lived on their island for 60,000 years.

Jarawa[edit] Vietnam[edit] The Ruc people, when first encountered by North Vietnamese soldiers during the Vietnam War, were hunting-gathering tribes, living in caves in eastern Quang Binh province. Oceania[edit] Australia[edit] In 1984, a group of Pintupi people who were living a traditional hunter-gatherer life were tracked down in the Gibson Desert in Western Australia. New Guinea[edit] Large areas of New Guinea are unexplored by scientists and anthropologists due to extensive forestation and mountainous terrain. The uncontacted tribes are located along the following regions:[8] GusawiLengguruKokiriDerewoTerikuFojaManuWarutaBrazza-Digul North America[edit] United States[edit]