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Independant Burma

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History of Burma: 1948-1962. Internal conflict in Burma. The internal conflict in Burma is one of the world's longest-running civil wars and began shortly after the country's attainment of independence from the United Kingdom (U.K.) in 1948;[14] successive central governments of Burma (or Myanmar) have fought a myriad of ethnic and political rebellions.

Internal conflict in Burma

Some of the earliest insurgencies were instigated by Burmese-dominated "multi-colored" left-wing groups and the Karen National Union (KNU); the KNU fought to create an independent Karen state from a large section of Lower Burma (or Outer Myanmar). Other ethnic rebellions started in the early 1960s after the central government refused to consider a federal government structure. By the early 1980s, politically oriented armed insurgencies had largely withered away, while ethnic-based insurgencies continued. [citation needed] As of 2007, around 25 different ethnic groups have signed ceasefire agreements with the military government.[15] Post-independence Burma, 1948–62. By 1958, the country was largely beginning to recover economically, but was beginning to fall apart politically due to a split in the AFPFL into two factions, one led by Thakins Nu and Tin, the other by Ba Swe and Kyaw Nyein.[1] And this despite the unexpected success of U Nu's 'Arms for Democracy' offer taken up by U Seinda in the Arakan, the Pa-o, some Mon and Shan groups, but more significantly by the PVO surrendering their arms.[1] The situation however became very unstable in parliament, with U Nu surviving a no-confidence vote only with the support of the opposition National United Front (NUF), believed to have 'cryptocommunists' amongst them.[1] Army hardliners now saw the 'threat' of the CPB coming to an agreement with U Nu through the NUF, and in the end U Nu 'invited' Army Chief of Staff General Ne Win to take over the country.[1] Over 400 'communist sympathisers' were arrested, of which 153 were deported to the Coco Islands in the Andaman Sea.

Post-independence Burma, 1948–62

See also[edit] References[edit] History of Burma: 1962-1988. Burmese Way to Socialism. History of Burma: Crisis and 1988 uprising. 8888 Uprising. The 8888 Nationwide Popular Pro-Democracy Protests ; MLCTS: hrac le: lum: also known as the People Power Uprising[6]) was a series of marches, demonstrations, protests,[7] and riots[8] in the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (today commonly known as Burma or Myanmar).

8888 Uprising

Key events occurred on 8 August 1988, and therefore it is known as the 8888 Uprising.[9] Since 1962, the country had been ruled by the Burma Socialist Programme Party regime as a one-party state, headed by General Ne Win. The 8888 uprising was started by students in Yangon (Rangoon) on 8 August 1988. Student protests spread throughout the country.[3][10] Hundreds of thousands of ochre-robed monks, young children, university students, housewives, and doctors demonstrated against the regime.[14][15] The uprising ended on 18 September, after a bloody military coup by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC).

History of Burma: 1990-2006. State Peace and Development Council. The State Peace and Development Council (Burmese: နိုင်ငံတော် အေးချမ်းသာယာရေး နှင့် ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေး ကောင်စီ [nàɪɴŋàɴdɔ̀ ʔédʑáɴθàjajé n̥ḭɴ pʰʊ̰ɴbjó jé kaʊ̀ɴsì]; abbreviated to SPDC or နအဖ, [na̰ʔa̰pʰa̰]) was the official name of the military regime of Burma (also known as Myanmar), which seized power in 1988.

State Peace and Development Council

On 30 March 2011, Senior General Than Shwe signed a decree that officially dissolved the Council.[1] From 1988 to 1997, the SPDC was known as State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), which had replaced the role of Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP).[2] In 1997, SLORC was abolished and reconstituted as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The powerful regional military commanders, who were members of SLORC, were promoted to new positions and transferred to the capital of Rangoon (now Yangon). 2007 anti-government protests. Saffron Revolution. In 2007, a series of anti-government protests started in Burma (also known as Myanmar) on 15 August 2007.

Saffron Revolution

Cyclone Nargis. Relief efforts were slowed for political reasons as Myanmar's military rulers initially resisted large-scale international aid.

Cyclone Nargis

U.S. President George W. Bush said that an angry world should condemn the way Myanmar's military rulers were handling the aftermath of such a catastrophic cyclone.[7] Myanmar's military junta finally accepted aid a few days after India's request was accepted.[8] Hampering the relief efforts, only ten days after the cyclone, nearby central China was hit by a massive earthquake, known as the Sichuan earthquake which measured 7.9 in magnitude and it alone had taken 87,476 lives,[9] and caused US$85 billion in damage, making it the costliest disaster in Chinese history and third costliest disaster ever known.

Furthermore, some donated aid items were found to be available in the country's black market, and Myanmar's junta warned on May 15 that legal action would be taken against people who traded or hoarded international aid. Meteorological history[edit] Storm path. Cyclone Nargis. 2011–12 Burmese political reforms. The 2011–2012 Burmese democratic reforms are an ongoing series of political, economic and administrative reforms in Burma undertaken by the military-backed government.

2011–12 Burmese political reforms

These reforms include the release of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest and subsequent dialogues with her, establishment of the National Human Rights Commission, general amnesties of more than 200 political prisoners, institution of new labour laws that allow labour unions and strikes, relaxation of press censorship, and regulations of currency practices.[1] As a consequence of the reforms, ASEAN has approved Burma's bid for the chairmanship in 2014. United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Burma on 1 December 2011, to encourage further progress; it was the first visit by a Secretary of State in more than fifty years.[2] United States President Barack Obama visited one year later, becoming the first US president to visit the country.

Background[edit] An election was held in 2010. 2011-present.