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Nonbenzodiazepine. Benzodiazepine. A benzodiazepine /ˌbɛnzɵdaɪˈæzɨpiːn/ (sometimes colloquially "benzo"; often abbreviated "BZD") is a psychoactive drug whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.


The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium) since 1963.[1] In general, benzodiazepines are safe and effective in the short term, although cognitive impairments and paradoxical effects such as aggression or behavioral disinhibition occasionally occur. A minority react reverse and contrary to what would normally be expected. There is controversy concerning the safety of benzodiazepines in pregnancy. Medical uses[edit] Panic disorder[edit] Benzodiazepines are usually administered orally; however, very occasionally lorazepam or diazepam may be given intravenously for the treatment of panic attacks.[17]

Melatonin. Melatonin The hormone can be used as a sleep aid and in the treatment of sleep disorders.


It can be taken orally as capsules, tablets, or liquid. It is also available in a form to be used sublingually, and there are transdermal patches. There have been few clinical trials, particularly long-term ones, in the use of melatonin in humans. Discovery[edit] Biosynthesis[edit] Melatonin biosynthesis involves four enzymatic steps from the essential dietary amino acid tryptophan, which follows a serotonin pathway. In bacteria, protists, fungi, and plants melatonin is synthesized indirectly with tryptophan as an intermediate product of the shikimic acid pathway. Histamine antagonist. A histamine antagonist (commonly called an antihistamine) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits the action of histamine by either blocking its attachment to histamine receptors, or inhibiting the enzymatic activity of histidine decarboxylase which catalyzes the transformation of histidine into histamine (atypical antihistaminics).

Histamine antagonist

Histamine antagonists are commonly used for the relief of allergies caused by intolerance of proteins.[1] Clinical effects[edit] Antihistamines suppress the histamine-induced wheal response (swelling) and flare response (vasodilation) by blocking the binding of histamine to its receptors on nerves, vascular smooth muscle, glandular cells, endothelium, and mast cells. They exert a competitive antagonism to histamines. Clinical: H1- and H2-receptor antagonists[edit] H1-receptor antagonists[edit] Main article: H1 antagonist In common use, the term antihistamine refers only to compounds that inhibit action at the H1 receptor (and not H2, etc.).

Examples include: Tryptophan. Tryptophan (IUPAC-IUBMB abbreviation: Trp or W; IUPAC abbreviation: L-Trp or D-Trp; sold for medical use as Tryptan)[2] is one of the 22 standard amino acids and an essential amino acid in the human diet, as demonstrated by its growth effects on rats.


It is encoded in the standard genetic code as the codon UGG. Only the L-stereoisomer of tryptophan is used in structural or enzyme proteins, but the R -stereoisomer is occasionally found in naturally produced peptides (for example, the marine venom peptide contryphan).[3] The distinguishing structural characteristic of tryptophan is that it contains an indole functional group. Barbiturate. Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia.


They are also effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants. Barbiturates also have analgesic effects; however, these effects are somewhat weak, preventing barbiturates from being used in surgery in the absence of other analgesics. They have addiction potential, both physical and psychological. Barbiturates have now largely been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice – for example, in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia – mainly because benzodiazepines are significantly less dangerous in overdose. History[edit] It was not until the 1950s that the behavioural disturbances and physical dependence potential of barbiturates became recognized.[5] Alcoholic beverage. A selection of various kinds of alcoholic beverage.

Alcoholic beverage

The interior of a liquor store in the United States. The global alcoholic drinks industry is expected to exceed $1 trillion this year.[1] An alcoholic beverage is a drink that typically contains 3%–60% ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three classes: beers, wines, and spirits (distilled beverages). They are legally consumed in most countries around the world. Alcoholic beverages have been produced and consumed by humans since the Neolithic Era, from hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states.[3] Alcoholic beverages[edit] By raw material[edit] The names of some alcoholic beverages are determined by their raw material.