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History of Tunisia

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History of Tunisia. Modern Tunisia.

History of Tunisia

The History of Tunisia is subdivided into the following articles: Names[edit] Tunisia, al-Jumhuriyyah at-Tunisiyyah, is a sovereign republic. Yet the country's proper name has changed radically more than once over the course of millennia. Hence, such a term as "ancient Tunisia" is frankly anachronistic. Undoubtedly, the most ancient Berbers had various names for their land and settlements here, one early Punic-era Berber name being Massyli.[1][2] After the Phoenicians arrived, their city of Carthage evolved to assume a dominant position over much of the western Mediterranean; this city-state gave its name to the region.[3] Following the Punic Wars, the Romans established here their Province of Africa, taking the then not-widely-known name of Africa from a Berber word for 'the people'.[4][5] The Roman capital was the rebuilt city of Carthage.

History Outline[edit] Its long history may be very briefly outlined or summarized.[11] Here a reverse chronological order is employed. History of Tunisia: Antiquity. Capsian culture. The main sites of the Iberomaurusian and Capsian cultures in north Africa The Capsian culture (named after the town of Gafsa in Tunisia) was a Mesolithic culture of the Maghreb, which lasted from about 10,000 to 6,000 BCE.

Capsian culture

It was concentrated mainly in modern Tunisia, and Algeria, with some sites attested in southern Spain to Sicily. It is traditionally divided into two horizons, the Capsien typique (Typical Capsian) and the Capsien supérieur (Upper Capsian) which are sometimes found in chronostratigraphic sequence. They represent variants of one tradition, the differences between them being both typological and technological.[1][2][3] Anatomically, Capsian populations were modern Homo sapiens, traditionally classed into two variegate types: Proto-Mediterranean and Mechta-Afalou on the basis of cranial morphology.

Nothing is known about Capsian religion, but their burial methods suggest a belief in an afterlife. See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ 2005 D. External links[edit] History of Tunisia: Middle ages. History of medieval Tunisia. Ottoman Tunisia. Ottoman Tunis. Initially under Turkish rule from Algiers, soon the Ottoman Porte appointed directly for Tunis a governor called the Pasha supported by janissary forces.

Ottoman Tunis

Before long, however, Tunisia became in effect an autonomous province, under the local Bey. This evolution of status was from time to time challenged without success by Algiers. During this era the governing councils controlling Tunisia remained largely composed of a foreign elite who continued to conduct state business in the Ottoman Turkish language. Attacks on European shipping were made by Barbary pirates, primarily from Algiers, but also from Tunis and Tripoli, yet after a long period of declining raids, the growing power of the European states finally forced its termination after the Barbary Wars. French Tunisia. French protectorate of Tunisia. The French protectorate of Tunisia (French: Protectorat français de Tunisie; Arabic: الحماية الفرنسية في تونس‎ Al-Ḥimāyah Al-Fransiyyah fī Tūnis) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956.

French protectorate of Tunisia

Tunisia formed a province of the decaying Ottoman Empire but enjoyed a large measure of autonomy under the bey Muhammad III as-Sadiq. In 1877, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire. History of modern Tunisia. In its modern history, Tunisia has become a sovereign republic, called the al-Jumhuriyyah at-Tunisiyyah.

History of modern Tunisia

Tunisia has over ten million citizens, almost all of Arab-Berber descent. The Mediterranean Sea is to the north and east, Libya to the southeast, and Algeria to the west. Tunis is the capital and the largest city (over 800,000); it is located near the ancient site of the city of Carthage.[1][2] During this time, it has been led by two presidents, who have had a significant impact on Tunisian society. Tunisian Independance. Tunisian Revolution. Tunisian revolution. The Tunisian Revolution,[8] also known as the Jasmine Revolution,[9] was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia.

Tunisian revolution

The events began on 18 December 2010 and led to the ousting of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011. It eventually led to a thorough democratization of the country and to free and democratic elections. They saw the victory of a coalition of the Islamist Ennahda Movement with the centre-left Congress for the Republic and the left-leaning Ettakatol as junior partners. The demonstrations were precipitated by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption,[10] [11] a lack of freedom of speech and other political freedoms[12] and poor living conditions.

Following further public protests, Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27 February, and Beji Caid el Sebsi became Prime Minister; two other members of the Interim Government resigned on the following day.