History of Syria. The history of the region now known as Syria, and the nations (or pre-national civilizations) previously occupying its territory: Prehistory The oldest remains found in Syria date from the Palaeolithic era (c.800,000 BC).
On 23 August 1993 a joint Japan-Syria excavation team discovered fossilized Paleolithic human remains at the Dederiyeh Cave some 400 km north of Damascus. The bones found in this massive cave were those of a Neanderthal child, estimated to have been about two years old, who lived in the Middle Palaeolithic era (ca. 200,000 to 40,000 years ago). Although many Neanderthal bones had been discovered already, this was practically the first time that an almost complete child's skeleton had been found in its original burial state. Archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth.
Ancient Syria Clay tablet from Ebla's archive Ebla was probably conquered by Sargon of Akkad around 2330 BC. Medieval era Pre-history.
Islamic era 634. Ottoman Syria 1549. Ottoman Syria refers to divisions of the Ottoman Empire within the Levant, usually defined as the region east of the Mediterranean Sea, west of the Euphrates River, north of the Arabian Desert and south of the Taurus Mountains. Ottoman Syria became organized by the Ottomans upon conquest from the Mamluks in the early 16th century into Eyalets (provinces) of Damascus and Aleppo.
Elayet of Tripoli was formed in 1579 and later Eyalet of Adana was split from Aleppo. In 1660, Eyalet of Safed was established and shortly renamed into Eyalet of Sidon. Ottoman Syria. French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon 1920. French mandate. Independence, war, and instability. Syrian Republic (1930–1958) United Arab Republic. The United Arab Republic ( UAR ; Arabic : الجمهورية العربية المتحدة al-Ǧumhūriyyah al-ʿArabiyyah al-Muttaḥidah ), was a short-lived political union between Egypt and Syria .
The union began in 1958 and existed until 1961, when Syria seceded from the union. Egypt continued to be known officially as the "United Arab Republic" until 1971. The President was Gamal Abdel Nasser . During the early years of its existence (1958–1961), it was a member of the United Arab States , a confederation with North Yemen . Origins of the union [ edit ] When Bizri led a second Syrian delegation composed of military officers on January 11, 1958, and personally discouraged Syro-Egyptian unity, Nasser opted for a total merger. Nasser's final terms were decisive and non-negotiable: “a plebiscite, the dissolution of parties, and the withdrawal of the army from politics”.
Early history [ edit ] 1963 Syrian coup d'état. The 1963 Syrian coup d'état, referred to by the Syrian government as the 8 March Revolution (Arabic: ثورة الثامن من آذار), was the successful seizure of power in Syria by the Military Committee of the Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.
The planning and the unfolding conspiracy was inspired by the Iraqi Regional Branch's successful military coup. Ba'athist Syria 1966. Syria Under Hafez al-Assad, 1970–2000. Hafez al-Assad. Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction) Coordinates: This article is about the pan-Arab Ba'ath Party, which is Syrian-led but has branches in multiple countries.
Syria Under Bashar al-Assad. Bashar al-Assad. Assad graduated from the medical school of Damascus University in 1988, and started to work as a physician in the army.
Four years later, he attended postgraduate studies at the Western Eye Hospital, in London, specializing in ophthalmology. In 1994, after his elder brother Bassel was killed in a car crash, Bashar was recalled to Syria to take over Bassel's role as heir apparent. He entered the military academy, taking charge of the Syrian occupation of Lebanon in 1998. In December 2000, Assad married Asma Assad, née Akhras. Civil War (2011–present) Syrian Civil War. The Syrian Civil War (Arabic: الحرب الأهلية السورية), also known as the Syrian Uprising, is an ongoing armed conflict taking place in Syria.
The unrest began in the early spring of 2011 within the context of Arab Spring protests, with nationwide protests against President Bashar al-Assad's government, whose forces responded with violent crackdowns. The conflict gradually morphed from popular protests to an armed rebellion after months of military sieges. By July 2013, the Syrian government was in control of approximately 30–40% of the country's territory and 60% of the Syrian population. A United Nations report in late 2012 described the conflict as being "overtly sectarian in nature", between mostly Alawite government forces, militias and other Shia groups fighting largely against Sunni-dominated rebel groups, although both opposition and government forces have denied it. Due to foreign involvement this conflict has been called a proxy war.