History of Ivory Coast. Prehistory and early history
Prehistory and early history. Land migration. Pre-Islamic and islamic periods. File:Royaumes ci.jpg. Pre-European era. Trade with Europe and the americas. Establishment of French rule. French rule. French colonial era. History of Ivory Coast (1960–99) On December 4, 1958, Ivory Coast became a member state within the French Community.
On August 7, 1960, Ivory Coast achieved its full independence fron France, and Félix Houphouët-Boigny became the first president after the independence. The policies of Félix Houphouët-Boigny, compared with the post-colonial leaders of other African countries, were more pro-Western. Houphouët-Boigny maintained a closed political allegiance to the West while many other leaders turned to the communist camp. After independence, Houphouët-Boigny maintained a close relation with France.
Ivory Coast had a growing French expatriate community, and many of the French expatriates provided Ivory Coast technical assistance. Houphouët-Boigny maintained a one-party regime. Under his government, Ivory Coast took the course of liberal free market economy and expanded its cash crop sector. However, in the 1980s, the prices of coffee and cocoa plunged. Henri Konan Bédié succeeded Houphouët-Boigny as the president.
Independence. Houphouet-Boigny administration. After Houphouet-Boigny. Bedie administration. 1999 coup. Gbagbo administration. First Ivorian Civil War. The First Ivorian Civil War was a conflict in the Ivory Coast (also known as Côte d'Ivoire) that began in 1999.
Although most of the fighting ended by late 2004, the country remained split in two, with a rebel-held north and a government-held south. Hostility increased and raids on foreign troops and civilians rose. As of 2006[update], the region was tense, and many said the UN and the French military failed to calm the civil war. Yet notably, the Côte d'Ivoire national football team was credited with helping to secure a temporary truce when it qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup and brought warring parties together. The United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire began after the civil war calmed, but peacekeepers have faced a complicated situation and are outnumbered by civilians and rebels.
A peace agreement to end the conflict was signed on 4 March 2007. First civil war. 2002 unity government. Ivorian presidential election, 2010. A presidential election was held in two rounds in Côte d'Ivoire (also called the Ivory Coast).
The first round was held on 31 October 2010 and a second round, in which President Laurent Gbagbo faced opposition leader Alassane Ouattara, was held on 28 November 2010. Originally scheduled to be held in 2005, the vote was delayed several times due to the Ivorian Civil War and difficulties involved in the organization and preparation of the election. A peace agreement between the government and the former rebel New Forces was signed on 4 March 2007, and in late April 2009, it was announced that the election would be held by 6 December 2009, and that the date would be announced shortly. On 15 May 2009, the date was announced to be 29 November 2009. On 11 November, the election was postponed again due to delays in the electoral roll.
It was announced on 3 December 2009 to be held in late February or early March 2010. Background Date Candidates Controversy 2010 election. Second Ivorian Civil War. The Second Ivorian Civil War broke out in March 2011 when the crisis in Ivory Coast escalated into full-scale military conflict between forces loyal to Laurent Gbagbo, the President of Ivory Coast since 2000, and supporters of the internationally recognised president-elect Alassane Ouattara.
After months of unsuccessful negotiations and sporadic violence between supporters of the two sides, the crisis entered a critical stage as Ouattara's forces seized control of most of the country, with Gbagbo entrenched in Abidjan, the country's largest city. International organizations have reported numerous instances of human rights violations by both sides, in particular in the city of Duékoué.
The UN and French forces took military action, with the stated objective to protect their forces and civilians. Ouattara's forces arrested Gbagbo at his residence on 11 April. Background In 2002 France sent its troops to Ivory Coast (Operation Unicorn) as peacekeepers. Second civil war.