Later the Latin culture became dominant, as Rome emerged as a powerful city-state around 350 BC. Other pre-Roman civilizations include Magna Graecia (or Greater Greece), when Greeks began settling in Southern Italy in the 8th century BC and lasted until the 3rd century BC and also the Etruscan civilization, which flourished between 900 and 150 BC in the central section of the peninsula.
The Roman Empire later dominated Western Europe and the Mediterranean for many centuries, making immeasurable contributions to humanity. Some of these led to the development of Western philosophy, science and art, that remained central during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. After the fall of Rome in AD 476, Italy remained fragmented in numerous city-states for much of the following millennium, finally falling under different foreign dominations. Parts of Italy were annexed to the Spanish, the Austrian and Napoleon I's empire, while the Holy See maintained control over Rome, before the Italian Peninsula was eventually liberated and unified in the late 19th century.
The new Kingdom of Italy, established in 1861, quickly modernized and built a large colonial empire, colonizing parts of Africa, and countries along the Mediterranean. However, many regions of the young nation (notably, the South) remained rural and poor, originating the Italian diaspora. Italy wins the World War I against its historical enemies, the Austrian Empire. Soon afterwards, however, the liberal state collapsed to social unrest: the Fascists, led by Benito Mussolini, took over and set up an authoritarian dictatorship. Italy joined the Axis powers in World War II, falling into a bloody Civil War after a monarchist coup ousted Mussolini in 1943, surrendering to the Allies in 1943, so eventually winning the war against Fascists and Nazi Germany in 1945.
In 1946, as a result of a Constitutional Referendum, the monarchy was abolished. The new republic was proclaimed on 2 June 1946.
History of Italy. History of Italy can be said to have started in the 20th century BC, when earliest accounts record the presence of Italic peoples in present-day central Italy.
Linguistically, they were divided into Oscans, Umbrians and Latins. Later the Latin culture became dominant, as Rome emerged as a powerful city-state around 350 BC. Prehistoric Italy. A Sardinian bronze statuette, perhaps portraying a tribal chief.
Cagliari, Museo Archeologico Nazionale. The territory of what is now Italy was settled by the Neanderthal man in the Lower Palaeolithic, roughly 500,000 years ago. As elsewhere in Europe, the Neanderthals co-existed with Homo sapiens for some time after their arrival ca. 40,000 years ago. Pre-history. Nuragic civilization. Nuraghe Ruju in Province of Oristano The Nuragic civilization was a civilization of Sardinia, lasting from the Bronze Age (18th century BC) to the 2nd century AD.
The name derives from its most characteristic monuments, the nuraghe. They consist of tower-fortresses, built starting from about 1800  BC. Today some 7,000 nuraghi dot the Sardinian landscape. History Pre-Nuragic Sardinia In the Stone Age the island was inhabited by people who had arrived there in the Palaeolithic and Neolithic ages from several parts of Europe and the Mediterranean area. The most ancient settlements have been discovered both in central Sardinia and Anglona; later several cultures developed in the island, such as the Ozieri culture (3200−2700 BC). Pranu Mutteddu’s Necropolis (Goni) The economy was based on agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and trading with the mainland. During this period copper objects and weapons also appeared in the island. Nuragic era Ancient Bronze Age
Nuragic civilization. Etruscan civilization. File:Etruscan civilization map.png. Magna Graecia. Starting Greek colonies and regions of ancient Italy and Sicily History Antiquity
Magna Graecia. File:Magna Graecia ancient colonies and dialects.svg. Cancel Edit Delete Preview revert Text of the note (may include Wiki markup) Could not save your note (edit conflict or other problem).
Middle ages. Italian Renaissance. Foreign domination (1559 to 1814) Unification (1814 to 1861) Liberal Italy (1861–1922) Fascist Italy, World War II and Civil War. Italian Republic (1946-)