History of Iraq.
Middle ages in Iraq. Ottoman Iraq. Ottoman Iraq refers to the period of the history of Iraq when the region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire (1534–1704 and 1831–1920).
Before reforms (1534–1704), Iraq was ruled as Baghdad Eyalet. Ottoman Iraq was later (1831–1920) divided into the three vilayets (provinces): Contemporary Maps, showing Eyalets (pre Tanzimat reforms) Contemporary Maps, showing Vilayets (post Tanzimat reforms) References See also Mamluk dynasty of Iraq. The Mamluk dynasty of Iraq (Arabic: مماليك العراق Mamālīk al-ʻIrāq) was a dynasty which ruled over Iraq in the 18th and early 19th centuries. In the Ottoman Empire, Mamluks were freed slaves who converted to Islam, were trained in a special school, and then assigned to military and administrative duties.
Such Mamluks presided over Ottoman Iraq from 1704 to 1831. The Mamluk ruling elite, composed principally of Georgian officers, succeeded in asserting autonomy from their Ottoman overlords, and restored order and some degree of economic prosperity in the region. Ottoman Iraq. British mandate: Kingdom of Iraq. Kingdom of Iraq. In 1945, Iraq joined the United Nations and became a founding member of the Arab League.
At the same time, the Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani led a rebellion against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising Barzani and his followers fled to the Soviet Union. In 1948, massive violent protests, known as the Al-Wathbah uprising broke out across Baghdad as a popular demand against the government treat with the British, and with communist part support. More protests continued in spring, but were interrupted in May, with the martial law, when Iraq entered the 1948 Arab-Israeli War along with other members of the Arab League. In February 1958, King Hussein of Jordan and `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed Egyptian-Syrian union. History British administration Mandatory Iraq. The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq (Arabic: الانتداب البريطاني على العراق Al-Antidab Al-Britaniy 'Ala Al-'Iraq) was created in 1921 following the 1920 Iraqi Revolt against the proposed British Mandate for Mesopotamia, and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
Faisal ibn Husayn, who had been proclaimed King of Syria by a Syrian National Congress in Damascus in March 1920, was ejected by the French in July of the same year. Faisal was then granted by the British the territory of Iraq, to rule it as a kingdom, with the British Royal Air Force (RAF) retaining certain military control, though de facto; the territory remained under British administration until 1932. The civil government of postwar Iraq was headed originally by the High Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox, and his deputy, Colonel Arnold Wilson. British reprisals after the murder of a British officer in Najaf failed to restore order. History Early unrest Coronation of Faisal Republic and Ba'athist Iraq. Iraqi Republic (1958–68) The Republic of Iraq (Arabic: الجمهورية العراقية Al-Jumhuriyah Al-'Iraqiyah) was a state forged in 1958 under the rule of President Muhammad Najib ar-Ruba'i and Prime Minister Abd al-Karim Qasim. ar-Ruba'i and Qasim first came to power through the 14 July Revolution in which the Kingdom of Iraq's Hashemite monarchy was overthrown.
As a result, the Kingdom and the Arab Federation were dissolved and the Iraqi republic established. The era ended with the Ba'athist rise to power in 1968. Iraq reverted to control over the territory of the former Kingdom of Iraq and Jordan again became an independent entity. During and after World War II, Britain reoccupied Iraq due to the 1941 Iraqi coup d'état in which four nationalist Iraqi generals, with German intelligence and military assistance, overthrew Regent 'Abd al-Ilah and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said and installed Rashid Ali as Prime Minister of Iraq. Ali was eventually ousted by the British and 'Abd al-Ilah and al-Said retook power. Ba'athist Iraq. Iraqi President Abdul Rahman Arif, and Iraqi Prime Minister Tahir Yahya, were ousted during a July 17 coup d'état led by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr of the Ba'ath Party, which had previously held power in 1963 and was led primarily by al-Bakr, its leader, and Saddam Hussein.
Hussein through his post as de facto chief of the party's intelligence services, became the country's de facto leader by the mid-1970s, and became de jure leader in 1979 when he succeeded al-Bakr in office as President. During al-Bakr's de jure rule, the country's economy grew, and Iraq's standing within the Arab world increased. However, several internal factors were threatening the country's stability, among them the country's conflict with Iran and the Shia Muslim community. An external problem was the border conflict with Iran, which would contribute to the Iran–Iraq War. Iraq War. Prior to the war, the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom claimed that Iraq's alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) posed a threat to their security and that of their coalition/regional allies. In 2002, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1441 which called for Iraq to completely cooperate with UN weapon inspectors to verify that Iraq was not in possession of WMD and cruise missiles.
Prior to the attack, the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) found no evidence of WMD, but could not yet verify the accuracy of Iraq's declarations regarding what weapons it possessed, as their work was still unfinished. The leader of the inspectors, Hans Blix, estimated the time remaining for disarmament being verified through inspections to be "months". [nb 2] Background
International invasion of Iraq, 2003. 2003 invasion of Iraq. Four countries participated with troops during the initial invasion phase, which lasted from 19 March to 9 April 2003.
These were the United States (148,000), United Kingdom (45,000), Australia (2,000), and Poland (194). 36 other countries were involved in its aftermath. In preparation for the invasion, 100,000 U.S. troops were assembled in Kuwait by 18 February. The coalition forces also received support from Kurdish irregulars in Iraqi Kurdistan. According to U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair, the coalition mission was "to disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction, to end Saddam Hussein's support for terrorism, and to free the Iraqi people The invasion was preceded by an air strike on the Presidential Palace in Baghdad on 19 March 2003.