Name of Georgia. Etymology. Outline of Georgia (country) The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Georgia: Russia 723 km Azerbaijan 322 km Turkey 252 km Armenia 164 km Coastline: Black Sea 310 km.
History of Georgia (country) History of Georgia is inextricably linked with the history of the Georgian people. Evidence for the earliest occupation of the territory of present day Georgia goes back to c. 1.8 million years ago, as evident from the excavations of Dmanisi in the south-eastern part of the country.
This is the oldest evidence of humans anywhere in the world outside Africa. Later prehistoric remains (Acheulian, Mousterian and the Upper Palaeolithic) are known from numerous cave and open-air sites in Georgia. The earliest agricultural Neolithic occupation is dated sometime between 6000 and 5000 BC. known as the Shulaveri-Shomu culture, where people used local obsidian for tools, raised animals such as cattle and pigs, and grew crops, including grapes. Prehistoric Georgia. Paleolithic Humans have been living in Georgia for an extremely long time, as attested by the discoveries, in 1999 and 2002, of two Homo erectus skulls (H. e. georgicus) at Dmanisi in southern Georgia.
The archaeological layer in which the human remains, hundreds of stone tools and numerous animal bones were unearthed is dated approximately 1.6-1.8 million years ago (since the underlying basalt lava bed yielded an age of approximately 1.8 million years). History of Georgia (Country): Prehistory. History of Georgia (Country): Antiquity. File:Georgian States Colchis and Iberia (600-150BC)-en.svg.
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History of Georgia (Country): Medieval Era. Georgia within the Russian Empire. Karte des Kaukasischen Isthmus.
Entworfen und gezeichnet von J. Grassl, 1856. For the next 117 years, Georgia would be part of the Russian Empire. Russian rule offered the Georgians peace and security from attack but it was also often heavy-handed and insensitive to local feelings. By the late 19th century, discontent with the Russian authorities led to a growing national movement. History of Georgia (Country): Georgia in the Russian empire. Democratic Republic of Georgia. The republic's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian.
Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Georgian Social Democratic Party (Menshevik). Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies, and collapsed between February and March 1921 to become a Soviet republic. Background Nikolay Chkheidze president of Georgian Provisional Assembly, later of Constituent Assembly Many Georgians, influenced by the ideas of Ilia Chavchavadze and other intellectuals from the late 19th century, insisted on national independence. History National Council meeting, May 26, 1918. History of Georgia (Country): Democratic Republic of Georgia. Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian: საქართველოს საბჭოთა სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა sakartvelos sabch'ota socialist'uri resp'ublik'a; Russian: Грузинская Советская Социалистическая Республика Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as the Georgian SSR, was one of the republics of the Soviet Union.
History Establishment On November 28, 1917, after the October Revolution in Russia, there was a Transcaucasian Commissariat headed by Mensheviks established in Tbilisi. History of Georgia (Country): Soviet Georgia. History of Georgia (Country): post-soviet Independance. Russia–Georgia war. Russian and Ossetian forces battled Georgian forces throughout South Ossetia for four days, the heaviest fighting taking place in Tskhinvali. On 9 August, Russian naval forces allegedly blockaded a part of the Georgian coast and landed marines on the Abkhaz coast. The Georgian Navy attempted to intervene, but was defeated in a naval skirmish. Russian and Abkhaz forces opened a second front by attacking the Kodori Gorge, held by Georgia. Georgian forces put up only minimal resistance, and Russian forces subsequently raided military bases in western Georgia.
After the Georgian forces retreated, the Russians were able to enter uncontested Georgia and temporarily occupy the cities of Poti, Gori, Senaki, and Zugdidi. Background Ethnic map of the Caucasus from 1995. Ossetians live in North and South Ossetia, as well as in central Georgia. International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Following the 2008 South Ossetia War between Russia and Georgia they were recognised by 6 and 5 UN member states respectively, though Vanuatu withdrew its recognition of Abkhazia in 2013 and Tuvalu withdrew its recognition of both in 2014.  The two regions recognise each other, and also have some recognition from other non-UN member states.
Georgia and the vast majority of countries of the world do not recognise their independence and officially consider them as sovereign territory of the Georgian state. History South Ossetia declared independence from Georgia during the 1991–1992 South Ossetia War on 29 May 1992, with its Constitution referring to the "Republic of South Ossetia". Abkhazia declared its independence after its war with Georgia in 1992–1993. Its Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1994. History of Georgia (Country): South Ossetia war.