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History of Cognitive Psychology

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Psychological nativism. In the field of psychology, nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are "native" or hard-wired into the brain at birth.

Psychological nativism

This is in contrast to empiricism, the "blank slate" or tabula rasa view, which states that the brain has inborn capabilities for learning from the environment but does not contain content such as innate beliefs.This factor contributes to the ongoing nature versus nurture dispute. Some nativists believe that specific beliefs or preferences are "hard wired".

For example, one might argue that some moral intuitions are innate or that color preferences are innate. A less established argument is that nature supplies the human mind with specialized learning devices. This latter view differs from empiricism only to the extent that the algorithms that translate experience into information may be more complex and specialized in nativist theories than in empiricist theories. Immanuel Kant. Immanuel Kant (/kænt/;[1] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy.

Immanuel Kant

He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.[2] Kant's major work, the Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1781),[3] aimed to explain the relationship between reason and human experience. With this project, he hoped to move beyond what he took to be failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Empiricism. John Locke, a leading philosopher of British empiricism Empiricism is a theory which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.[1] One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism, empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory experience, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions;[2] empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.[3] Empiricism, often used by natural scientists, says that "knowledge is based on experience" and that "knowledge is tentative and probabilistic, subject to continued revision and falsification.

Empiricism

John Locke. John Locke FRS (/ˈlɒk/; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism".[1][2][3] Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory.

John Locke

His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.[4]

Plato. Plato (/ˈpleɪtoʊ/; Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn "broad"pronounced [plá.tɔːn] in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BCE) was a philosopher, as well as mathematician, in Classical Greece.

Plato

George Berkeley. George Berkeley (/ˈbɑrkleɪ/;[1] 12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne), was an Anglo-Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others). This theory denies the existence of material substance and instead contends that familiar objects like tables and chairs are only ideas in the minds of perceivers, and as a result cannot exist without being perceived.

Berkeley is also known for his critique of abstraction, an important premise in his argument for immaterialism. In 1709, Berkeley published his first major work, An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision, in which he discussed the limitations of human vision and advanced the theory that the proper objects of sight are not material objects, but light and colour. Life in Ireland[edit] For this theory, the Principles gives the exposition and the Dialogues the defence. Language. A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system.

Language

The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had in order for the later developmental stages to occur. A group of languages that descend from a common ancestor is known as a language family. Paul Broca. Pierre Paul Broca (/broʊˈkɑː/ or /ˈbroʊkə/; 28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, surgeon, anatomist, and anthropologist.

Paul Broca

He was born in Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Gironde. He is best known for his research on Broca's area, a region of the frontal lobe that has been named after him. Broca’s Area is involved with articulated language. His work revealed that the brains of patients suffering from aphasia contained lesions in a particular part of the cortex, in the left frontal region. This was the first anatomical proof of the localization of brain function. Expressive aphasia.

Expressive aphasia (non-fluent aphasia) is characterized by the loss of the ability to produce language (spoken or written). It is one subset of a larger family of disorders known collectively as aphasia. Expressive aphasia differs from dysarthria, which is typified by a patient's inability to properly move the muscles of the tongue and mouth to produce speech. Carl Wernicke. Carl or Karl Wernicke (/ˈvɛərnɨkə/ or /ˈvɛərnɨki/; German: [ˈvɛʁnɪkə]) (15 May 1848 – 15 June 1905) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist.

Carl Wernicke

His first name has long appeared in print in both the Karl and Carl spelling variants (see Charles).[1] Background[edit] He earned his medical degree at the University of Breslau (1870). He later spent six months in Vienna, studying with neuropathologist Theodor Meynert, who would have a profound influence upon Wernicke's career. From 1876 to 1878 he served as a first assistant under Karl Westphal in the clinic for psychiatry and nervous diseases at the Berlin Charité. Receptive aphasia. Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernicke’s aphasia, fluent aphasia, or sensory aphasia, is a type of aphasia traditionally associated with neurological damage to Wernicke’s area in the brain,[1] (Brodmann area 22, in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere).

Receptive aphasia

However, the key deficits of receptive aphasia do not come from damage to Wernicke's area;[1] instead, most of the core difficulties are proposed to come from damage to the medial temporal lobe and underlying white matter. Artificial intelligence. AI research is divided into subfields[6] that focus on specific problems, approaches, the use of a particular tool, or towards satisfying particular applications.

Artificial intelligence

The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[7] General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals.[8] Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics. The AI field draws upon computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, neuroscience and artificial psychology. History[edit] Ulric Neisser. Ulric Gustav Neisser (December 8, 1928 – February 17, 2012[1]) was a German-born American psychologist and member of the US National Academy of Sciences. He was a significant figure in the development of cognitive science and the shift from behaviorist to cognitive models in psychology.

Early life and education[edit] Born in Kiel, Germany, Neisser moved with his family to the United States in 1933. Neisser earned a bachelor's degree summa cum laude from Harvard University in 1950,[2] a Master’s at Swarthmore College, and a doctorate from Harvard's Department of Social Relations in 1956.[2] He then taught at Brandeis and Emory universities, before establishing himself at Cornell. Aaron T. Beck. Background and personal life[edit] Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, the youngest child of four siblings to Russian Jewish immigrants. Beck's daughter, Judith S. Beck, Ph.D., is a prominent cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) educator and clinician, who wrote the basic text in the field.

She is President of the non-profit Beck Institute.[11] Beck was married in 1950 to the Honorable Phyllis W. Definition of Cognitive Psychology. Structuralism (psychology) Structuralism in psychology refers to a theory of consciousness developed by Wilhelm Wundt, and his mentee Edward B. Titchener that brought Wundt's idea to the United States. Depending on who you asked it will be said either of them formally began this field of psychology but it is certain that Titchener expanded on what Wundt originally provided, and was also responsible for bringing this idea to America. Structuralism as a school of psychology sought to analyze the adult mind (the sum total of experience from birth to the present) in terms of the simplest definable components and then to find how these components fit together to form more complex experiences as well as how they correlated to physical events. Edward B. Titchener.

Biography[edit] Cognitive revolution. The cognitive revolution is the name for an intellectual movement in the 1950s that began what are known collectively as the cognitive sciences. Noam Chomsky. Avram Noam Chomsky (/ˈnoʊm ˈtʃɒmski/; born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher,[21][22] cognitive scientist, logician,[23][24][25] political commentator and anarcho-syndicalist activist.

Sometimes described as the "father of modern linguistics",[26][27] Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy.[21] He has spent most of his career at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he is currently Professor Emeritus, and has authored over 100 books. World War II. World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier. Information theory. Overview[edit] The main concepts of information theory can be grasped by considering the most widespread means of human communication: language. Two important aspects of a concise language are as follows: First, the most common words (e.g., "a", "the", "I") should be shorter than less common words (e.g., "roundabout", "generation", "mediocre"), so that sentences will not be too long.

Donald Broadbent. Donald Eric (D.E.) Dualism (philosophy of mind) René Descartes's illustration of dualism. Inputs are passed on by the sensory organs to the epiphysis in the brain and from there to the immaterial spirit.