History of Chad. Chad (Arabic: تشاد ; French: Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
It borders Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Due to its distance from the sea and its largely desert climate, the country is sometimes referred to as the "Dead Heart of Africa". Prehistory Location of Sahelanthropus tchadensis find in 2002. History of Chad. Prehistory of Chad. Era of Empires (AD 900–1900) Kanem-Bornu Empire. The Kanem-Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria.
It was known to the Arabian geographers as the Kanem Empire from the 9th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900. At its height it encompassed an area covering not only much of Chad, but also parts of modern southern Libya, eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. Kanem-Bornu Empire. Kingdoms of Baguirmi and Ouaddai. Kingdom of Baguirmi. The Kingdom of Baguirmi, also known as the Baguirmi Sultanate (1522–1897), was an Islamic kingdom or sultanate that existed as an independent state during the 16th and 17th centuries southeast of Lake Chad in what is now the country of Chad.
Baguirmi emerged to the southeast of the Kanem-Bornu Empire. The kingdom's first ruler was Mbang Birni Besse. Later in his reign, the Bornu Empire conquered and made the state a tributary. Under the reign of Abdullah IV (1568–1608), Islam was adopted, and the state became a sultanate, using judicial and administrative procedures. The title of Mbang was still used along with Sultan. The Mbang Abd ar Rahman Gwaranga (Left), c. 1918. Baguirmi's political history was a function of its strength and unity in relation to its larger neighbors.
The Baguirmi language is still spoken today, with 44,761 speakers as of 1993[update], primarily in the Chari-Baguirmi Region. See also References Lebeuf, Annie M. Ouaddai Empire. Colonialism (1900–40) French Chad. Chad was a part of the French colonial empire from 1900 to 1960.
Colonial rule under the French began in 1900 when the Military Territory of Chad was established. From 1905, Chad was linked to the federation of French colonial possessions in Middle Africa, known from 1910 under the name of French Equatorial Africa. Chad passed in 1920 to French civilian administration, but suffered from chronic neglect. Decolonization (1940–60) Tombalbaye government. Tombalbaye's Governance At the outset, Tombalbaye demonstrated an autocratic style along with a distrust of the institutions of democracy.
One week before the country gained independence, Tombalbaye purged Gabriel Lisette from his own party, the Chadian Progressive Party (PPT), declared Lisette a noncitizen while he was traveling abroad, and barred him from returning to Chad. This "coup by telegram" was the first in an extensive series of Tombalbaye's increasingly authoritarian actions to eliminate or neutralize his opponents. To increase his power and freedom of action, Tombalbaye declared a ban on all political parties except the PPT in January 1962, and, in April, he established a presidential form of government. The Tombalbaye regime.
Military rule (1975–78) Chad under Félix Malloum. The 1975 coup d'état in Chad that terminated Tombalbaye's government received an enthusiastic response in the capital N'Djamena.
Félix Malloum emerged as the chairman of the new Supreme Military Council (Conseil Supérieur Militaire or CSM) and the first days of the new regime were celebrated as many political prisoners were released. His government included more Muslims from northern and eastern Chad, but ethnic and regional dominance still remained very much in the hands of southerners. Economic policies The successor government soon overturned many of Tombalbaye's more odious policies. For example, the CSM attempted to distribute external drought relief assistance more equitably and efficiently, devised plans to develop numerous economic reforms, including reductions in taxes and government expenditures, and abandoned some of the more oppressive measures used to encourage cotton production. Political control and opposition Foreign relations and growing dissension Civil war (1979-82) Transitional Government of National Unity. The Transitional Government of National Unity (Gouvernement d'Union Nationale de Transition or GUNT) was the coalition government of armed groups that nominally ruled Chad from 1979 to 1982, during the most chaotic phase of the long-running civil war that began in 1965.
The GUNT replaced the fragile alliance led by Félix Malloum and Hissène Habré, which collapsed in February 1979. GUNT was characterized by intense rivalries that led to armed confrontations and the Libyan intervention in 1980. Libya intervened in support of the GUNT's President Goukouni Oueddei against the former GUNT Defence Minister Hissène Habré. Because of international pressures and uneasy relations between Goukouni and Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, Goukouni asked the Libyans to leave Chad in November 1981; they were replaced by an Inter-African Force (IAF). The IAF showed itself unwilling to confront Habré's militia, and on June 7, 1982, the GUNT was ousted by Habré; Goukouni fled into exile.
References The Habré era (1982–90) Chadian–Libyan conflict.
2010 Sahel famine. The Sahel forms a belt up to 1000 km wide, spanning Africa from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea.
The vegetation in the Sahel follows seasonal rainfall.