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The diverse world of Indonesian music genres was the result of the musical creativity of its people, and also the subsequent cultural encounters with foreign musical influences into the archipelago.

Next to distinctive native form of musics, several genres can traces its origin to foreign influences; such as gambus and qasidah from Middle Eastern Islamic music, keroncong from Portuguese influences, and dangdut with notable Hindi music influence. Folk music. Tembang Sunda. Tembang sunda, also called seni mamaos cianjuran, is a style of classical vocal music that originated in the Sunda Kingdom of highland west Java.

Tembang Sunda

Unlike Sundanese gamelan music, tembang sunda was developed in the court of the regent Kabupaten Cianjur during the Dutch colonial period (mid-nineteenth century). The traditional vocal portion is sung free verse poetry, the instrumental accompaniment being performed on kacapi (zither), suling (bamboo flute) and sometimes, rebab (violin). Jaipongan. Jaipongan, also known as Jaipong, is a popular traditional dance of Sundanese people, West Java, Indonesia.


The dance was created by Gugum Gumbira, based on traditional Sundanese Ketuk Tilu music and Pencak Silat movements. Background[edit] In 1961, Indonesian President Sukarno prohibited rock and roll and other western genres of music, and challenged Indonesian musicians to revive the indigenous arts. The name jaipongan came from people mimicking of the sounds created by some of the drums in the ensemble. Audiences were often heard shouting jaipong after specific sections of rhythmic music were played. The most widely available album of Jaipongan outside of Indonesia is Tonggeret by singer Idjah Hadidjah and Gugum Gumbira's Jugala orchestra, released in 1987, and re-released as West Java: Sundanese Jaipong and other Popular Music by Nonesuch/Elektra Records. Gugum Gumbira[edit] Gugum Gumbira was born in 1945 in Bandung, Indonesia. Musical origins[edit] Qanbūs. A qanbūs lute in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna A qanbūs or gambus (Arabic: القنبوس‎ is a short-necked lute that originated in Yemen and spread throughout the Arabian peninsula.


Sachs considered that it derived its name from the Turkic komuz, but it is more comparable to the oud.[1] It has twelve nylon strings that are plucked with a plastic plectrum to generate sound, much like a guitar. Kroncong. An example of keronchong from the Free Music Archive Kroncong (pronounced "kronchong"; Indonesian: Keroncong, Dutch: Krontjong) is the name of a ukulele-like instrument and an Indonesian musical style that typically makes use of the kroncong (the sound chrong-chrong-chrong comes from this instrument, so the music is called keronchong), the band or combo or ensemble (called a keronchong orchestra) consists of a flute, a violin, a melody guitar, a cello in pizzicato style, string bass in pizzicato style, and a female or male singer.


Characteristics[edit] Liev Java Orchestra in Batavia, 1936 One ukulele, called the "cak" (pronounced "chak"), may be steel-stringed. The instrumentalist strums chords with up to 8 strums per beat in 4/4 rhythm. The cello may have 3 gut or nylon strings and the chords are plucked rapidly, often with a unique skipped-beat using the thumb and one finger. Langgam jawa. Langgam jawa is a regional form of Indonesian kroncong music most often associated with the city of Surakarta (Solo).

Langgam jawa

As is the case with traditional kroncong music, langgam jawa utilizes a variety of non-native instruments, such as the flute, guitar, ukulele, cello and violin. However, these instruments are performed using a seven-tone Javanese gamelan scale known as pelog. The cello typically plays the role of a gamelan ciblon drum, with the performer slowly plucking or slapping the strings in a percussive fashion. Langgam jawa's roots can be traced back to kroncong ensambles going back to the 1920s, but emerged as a style of its own in the 1950s. Among the leading exponents of the style is Andjar Any. See also[edit] References[edit] Source: Indonesian Popular Music: Kroncong, Dangdut and Langgam Jawa.

External links[edit] Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. Qasida. The qaṣīdaᵗ (also spelled qaṣīdah; is originally an Arabic word Arabic: قصيدة, plural qasā'id, قــصــائـد; that was passed to some other languages such as Persian: قصیده or چكامه, chakameh, in Turkish: kaside) it is an ancient Arabic word and form of writing poem that was passed to other cultures after the Arab Muslim expansion. the word qasidah is still being used in its original birthplace - Arabia- and in all Arabic speaking countries.


Well known qasā'id include the Qasida Burda ("Poem of the Mantle") by Imam al-Busiri and Ibn Arabi's classic collection "The Interpreter of Desires". Form[edit] Arabic qaṣīda means "intention" and the genre found use as a petition to a patron. A qasida has a single presiding subject, logically developed and concluded. Often it is a panegyric, written in praise of a king or a nobleman, a genre known as madīḥ, meaning "praise". While many poets have intentionally or unintentionally deviated from this plan it is recognisable in many. Persian variation[edit] Dangdut. Campursari. Campursari in Indonesian refers to a crossover of several contemporary Indonesian music genres, mainly Javanese Langgam Jawa and Dangdut.


The word campursari was coined from the Javanese language, and literally means "mixture of essences". Campursari music is popular and prevalent within the Javanese cultural sphere, especially Central Java, Yogyakarta and East Java; and also in some regions where Javanese immigrants were abundant, such as parts of Greater Jakarta, Lampung or even Suriname. It is related to the modification of several musical instruments like gamelan combined with western musical instruments such as guitar and keyboard. The combination thus ends up with the western instruments to be dominated by the traditional Javanese instruments according to the local taste of langgam Jawa and gending. Some popular Campursari artists are Didi Kempot and older langgam Jawa kroncong diva Waljinah.