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Forensics

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Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Media: Autopsy. WARNING: Some people may find images from actual postmortem dissections disturbing.

Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Media: Autopsy

Viewer discretion advised. Videos on this page require either QuickTime Player or Windows Media Player. Postmortem dissection, or autopsy, was among the first scientific methods to be used in the investigation of violent or suspicious death. Autopsy remains the core practice of forensic medicine. The postmortem examiner surveys the body's surface, opens it up with surgical instruments, removes parts for microscopic inspection and toxicological analysis, and makes a report that attempts to reconstruct the cause, manner and mechanism of death. Beginning an autopsy New York University Medical Center, The Forensic Autopsy (New York, 1978). View with QuickTime: Low Quality | High Quality View with Windows Media Player: Low Quality | High QualityRead the transcript Dissecting and analyzing the body parts.

Crime Scene Investigation Articles. Crime science. Crime science is the study of crime in order to find ways to prevent it.

Crime science

Three features distinguish crime science from criminology: it is single-minded about cutting crime, rather than studying it for its own sake; accordingly it focuses on crime rather than criminals; and it is multidisciplinary, notably recruiting scientific methodology rather than relying on social theory. Crime science in the United Kingdom was conceived by the British broadcaster Nick Ross in the late 1990s (with encouragement from the then Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, Sir John Stevens and Professor Ken Pease) out of concern that traditional criminology and orthodox political discourse were doing little to influence the ebb and flow of crime (e.g.

Ross: Police Foundation Lecture, London, 11 July 2000 [jointly with Sir John Stevens]; Parliamentary and Scientific Committee, 22 March 2001; Royal Institution Lecture 9 May 2002; Barlow Lecture, UCL, 6 April 2005). Forensic science. Forensic science is the scientific method of gathering and examining information about the past.

Forensic science

This is especially important in law enforcement where forensics is done in relation to criminal or civil law,[1] but forensics are also carried out in other fields, such as astronomy, archaeology, biology and geology to investigate ancient times. Forensic psychology. Generally, a forensic psychologist is designated as an expert in a particular area of expertise.

Forensic psychology

The number of areas of expertise in which a forensic psychologist qualifies as an expert increases with experience and reputation. Forensic neuropsychologists are generally asked to appear as expert witnesses in court to discuss cases that involve issues with the brain or brain damage. They may also deal with issues of whether a person is legally competent to stand trial. List of national legal systems. Civil law[edit] While the concept of codification dates back to the Code of Hammurabi in Babylon ca. 1790 BC, civil law systems derive from the Roman Empire and, more particularly, the Corpus Juris Civilis issued by the Emperor Justinian ca.

List of national legal systems

AD 529. This was an extensive reform of the law in the Byzantine Empire, bringing it together into codified documents. Civil law was also partly influenced by religious laws such as Canon law and Islamic law.[2][3] Civil law today, in theory, is interpreted rather than developed or made by judges. Only legislative enactments (rather than legal precedents, as in common law) are considered legally binding. Hearsay. Hearsay is information gathered by one person from another person concerning some event, condition, or thing of which the first person had no direct experience.

Hearsay

When submitted as evidence, such statements are called hearsay evidence . Exclusionary rule. The exclusionary rule is a legal principle in the United States , under constitutional law , which holds that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the defendant 's constitutional rights is sometimes inadmissible for a criminal prosecution in a court of law .

Exclusionary rule

This may be considered an example of a prophylactic rule formulated by the judiciary in order to protect a constitutional right. The exclusionary rule may also, in some circumstances at least, be considered to follow directly from the constitutional language, such as the Fifth Amendment 's command that no person "shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself" and that no person "shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law". This rule is occasionally referred to as a legal technicality because it allows defendants a defense that does not address whether the crime was actually committed. Adversarial system. The adversarial system (or adversary system ) is a legal system where two advocates represent their parties' positions before an impartial person or group of people, usually a jury or judge , who attempt to determine the truth of the case. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] As opposed to that, the inquisitorial system has a judge (or a group of judges who work together) whose task is to investigate the case.

Adversarial system

Psychology. Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.[1][2] Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist.

Psychology

Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. Etymology History Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Behaviorism Humanistic.