Sociobiology. Sociobiology is a field of scientific study which is based on the assumption that social behavior has resulted from evolution and attempts to explain and examine social behavior within that context.
Zoology. Zoology (/zoʊˈɒlədʒi/, zoh AHL uh jee) or animal biology, is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct.
The term is derived from Ancient Greek ζῷον, zōon, i.e. "animal" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "knowledge, study". History Ancient history to Darwin The history of zoology traces the study of the animal kingdom from ancient to modern times. Over the 18th and 19th centuries, zoology became an increasingly professional scientific discipline. Archaeology. Archaeology studies human prehistory and history from the development of the first stone tools in eastern Africa 4 million years ago up until recent decades. (Archaeology does not include the discipline of paleontology.)
It is of most importance for learning about prehistoric societies, when there are no written records for historians to study, making up over 99% of total human history, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in any given society. Archaeology has various goals, which range from studying human evolution to cultural evolution and understanding culture history. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, and has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Anthropology. Anthropology /ænθrɵˈpɒlədʒi/ is the study of humankind, past and present, that draws and builds upon knowledge from social and biological sciences, as well as the humanities and the natural sciences. Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology in Great Britain and the US has been distinguished from ethnology and from other social sciences by its emphasis on cross-cultural comparisons, long-term in-depth examination of context, and the importance it places on participant-observation or experiential immersion in the area of research.
In those European countries that did not have overseas colonies, where ethnology (a term coined and defined by Adam F. Origin of the term The term anthropology originates from the Greek anthrōpos (ἄνθρωπος), "human being" (understood to mean humankind or humanity), and -λογία -logia, "study. " Fields According to Clifford Geertz, Ethology. Artificial intelligence. Evolutionary developmental psychology. It further proposes that an evolutionary account would provide some insight into not only predictable stages of ontogeny, but into specific differences between individuals as well.
Such a perspective suggests that there are multiple alternative strategies to recurring problems that human children would have faced throughout our evolutionary past and that individual differences in developmental patterns aren’t necessarily idiosyncratic reactions, but are predictable, adaptive responses to environmental pressures. Brief history Traditionally, evolutionary psychologists tended to focus their research and theorizing primarily on adults, especially on behaviors related to socializing and mating.
There was much less of a focus on psychological development, as it relates to Darwinian evolution. Evolutionary psychology of religion. The evolutionary psychology of religion is the study of religious belief using evolutionary psychology principles.
It is one approach to the psychology of religion. As with all other organs and organ functions, the brain and cognition's functional structure have been argued to have a genetic basis, and are therefore subject to the effects of natural selection and evolution. Like other organs and tissues, this functional structure should be universally shared amongst humans and should solve important problems of survival and reproduction. Evolutionary psychologists seek to understand cognitive processes, religion in this case, by understanding the survival and reproductive functions they might serve. Behavioral ecology. Some examples of Behavioural Ecology An African elephant crossing a river Behavioral ecology is the study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures.
Behavioral ecology emerged from ethology after Niko Tinbergen outlined four questions to address when studying animal behavior which are the proximate causes, ontogeny, survival value, and phylogeny of behavior. If an organism has a trait which provides them with a selective advantage (i.e. has an adaptive significance) in a new environment natural selection will likely favor it. This was originally proposed as the theory of natural selection by Charles Darwin. Cognitive psychology. Genetics. Genetics (from the Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos meaning "genitive"/"generative", in turn from γένεσις genesis meaning "origin"), a field in biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms. Mendel observed that organisms inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance".
This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of a gene. A more modern working definition of a gene is a portion (or sequence) of DNA that codes for a known cellular function. This portion of DNA is variable, it may be small or large, have a few subregions or many subregions. The word "gene" refers to portions of DNA that are required for a single cellular process or single function, more than the word refers to a single tangible item. Genetics acts in combination with an organism's environment and experiences to influence development and behavior.