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Effects of drugs on the body

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Direct harmful reaction. Cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells .

Cytotoxicity

Examples of toxic agents are a chemical substance , an immune cell or some types of venom (e.g. from the puff adder or brown recluse spider ). Cell physiology [ edit ] Treating cells with the cytotoxic compound can result in a variety of cell fates. The cells may undergo necrosis , in which they lose membrane integrity and die rapidly as a result of cell lysis . The cells can stop actively growing and dividing (a decrease in cell viability), or the cells can activate a genetic program of controlled cell death ( apoptosis ). Cells undergoing necrosis typically exhibit rapid swelling, lose membrane integrity, shut down metabolism and release their contents into the environment.

Measuring cytotoxicity [ edit ] Cytotoxicity assays are widely used by the pharmaceutical industry to screen for cytotoxicity in compound libraries. Assessing cell membrane integrity is one of the most common ways to measure cell viability and cytotoxic effects. Irritation. Irritation or exacerbation , in biology and physiology , is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.

Irritation

A stimulus or agent which induces the state of irritation is an irritant . Irritants are typically thought of as chemical agents (for example phenol and capsaicin ) but mechanical, thermal (heat), and radiative stimuli (for example ultraviolet light or ionising radiations ) can also be irritants. Irritation also has non-clinical usages referring to bothersome physical or psychological pain or discomfort. Chronic irritation is a medical term signifying that afflictive health conditions have been present for a while. There are many disorders that can cause chronic irritation, the majority involves the skin, vagina, eyes and lungs. Direct beneficial action. Antioxidant. Model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione .

Antioxidant

The yellow sphere is the redox-active sulfur atom that provides antioxidant activity, while the red, blue, white, and dark grey spheres represent oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms, respectively. An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent . Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals . Stabilizing action. Buprenorphine. Sublingual Suboxone(Buprenorphine/Naloxone 8mg/2mg) Film Butrans 10mcg/hr patches in the pouch with packaging.

Buprenorphine

A removed patch is shown on the left before disposal. Aripiprazole. Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic.

Aripiprazole

It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.[5] Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism.[6] According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning.[7] Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low.[7] It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb.

From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.[9] Blocking/antagonizing. Receptor antagonist. Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling.

Receptor antagonist

Depressing action. Depression (physiology) Agonist. Agonists activating hypothetical receptors.

Agonist

Efficacy spectrum of receptor ligands. Types of agonists[edit] An endogenous agonist for a particular receptor is a compound naturally produced by the body that binds to and activates that receptor. Inverse agonist. Dose response curves of a full agonist, partial agonist, neutral antagonist, and inverse agonist The efficacy of a full agonist is by definition 100%, a neutral antagonist has 0% efficacy, and an inverse agonist has < 0% (i.e., negative) efficacy.

Inverse agonist

Examples[edit] An example of a receptor that possesses basal activity and for which inverse agonists have been identified is the GABAA receptor. Agonists for the GABAA receptor (such as benzodiazepines) create a sedative effect, whereas inverse agonists have anxiogenic effects (for example, Ro15-4513) or even convulsive effects (certain beta-carbolines).[2][3] Two known endogenous inverse agonists are the Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and its associated peptide Agouti signalling peptide (ASIP). The opioid antagonists naloxone and naltrexone are also partial inverse agonists at mu opioid receptors. Exchanging/replacing. Glycogen. Schematic 2-D cross-sectional view of glycogen.

Glycogen

A core protein of glycogenin is surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain approximately 30,000 glucose units. [ 1 ] Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide that serves as a form of energy storage in animals [ 2 ] and fungi . In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles , and functions as the secondary long-term energy storage (with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue ). Stimulating. Stimulation. Stimulation is the action of various agents ( stimuli ) on nerves , muscles , or a sensory end organ, by which activity is evoked; especially, the nervous impulse produced by various agents on nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which the part connected with the nerve is thrown into a state of activity.

Stimulation

The word is also often used metaphorically. For example, an interesting or fun activity can be described as "stimulating", regardless of its physical effects on nerves. (Note)Stimulate means act as stimulus to, stimulus means things that rouses to activity, now rouses means exciting, stirring. Overview [ edit ] Stimulation in general refers to how organisms perceive incoming stimuli. Agonist.