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Early history in Iran

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Archaeological sites in Iran. Early history in Iran. Proto-Elamite. The Proto-Elamite period is the time from ca. 3200 BC to 2700 BC when Susa, the later capital of the Elamites, began to receive influence from the neighboring Sumerian culture,[1] which was contemporary with it.


In archaeological terms this corresponds to the late Banesh period, and it is recognized as the oldest civilization in Iran. The Proto-Elamite script is an Early Bronze Age writing system briefly in use before the introduction of Elamite cuneiform. Overview[edit] During the period 8000–3700 BC, the Fertile Crescent witnessed the spread of small settlements supported by agricultural surplus. Geometric tokens emerged to be used to manage stewardship of this surplus.[2] The earliest tokens now known are those from two sites in the Zagros region of Iran: Tepe Asiab and Ganj-i-Dareh Tepe.[3] Besides Susa, one important Proto-Elamite site is Tepe Sialk, where the only remaining Proto-Elamite ziggurat is still seen. Proto-Elamite script[edit] Economic tablet with numeric signs. Jacob L. Jiroft culture. A "Jiroft culture"[1] has been postulated as an early Bronze Age (late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture, located in what is now Iran's Sistan and Kermān Provinces.

Jiroft culture

The hypothesis is based on a collection of artifacts that were confiscated in Iran and accepted by many to have derived from the Jiroft area in south central Iran, reported by online Iranian news services, beginning in 2001. The proposed type site is Konar Sandal, near Jiroft in the Halil River area. Other significant sites associated with the culture include; Shahr-e Sukhteh (Burnt City), Tepe Bampur, Espiedej, Shahdad, Tal-i-Iblis and Tepe Yahya. The proposition of grouping these sites as an "independent Bronze Age civilization with its own architecture and language", intermediate between Elam to the west and the Indus Valley Civilization to the east, is due to Yousef Majidzadeh, head of the archaeological excavation team in Jiroft. Discovery and excavation[edit] Tepe Sialk. Coordinates: 33°58′08″N 51°24′17″E / 33.968915°N 51.404738°E / 33.968915; 51.404738 (Sialk) Tepe Sialk (Persian: تپه سیلک‎) is a large ancient archeological site (a tepe or Persian tappeh, "hill" or "mound") in a suburb of the city of Kashan, Isfahan Province, in central Iran, close to Fin Garden.

Tepe Sialk

The culture that inhabited this area has been linked to the Zayandeh River Culture.[1] History[edit] CAD rendering of Sialk ziggurat based on archeological evidence The Sialk ziggurat was built around the 3000 BC. Sialk, and the entire area around it, is thought to have first originated as a result of the pristine large water sources nearby that still run today. Archaeology[edit] Tepe Sialk was excavated for three seasons (1933, 1934, and 1937) by a team headed by Roman Ghirshman.[2][3] Studies related to the site were conducted by D.E.

These artifacts consisted of some very fine painted potteries.[10] Shahr-e Sukhteh. Coordinates: 30°35′43″N 61°19′35″E / 30.59528°N 61.32639°E / 30.59528; 61.32639 Shahr-e Sūkhté (Persian: شهر سوخته‎, meaning "[The] Burnt City"), also spelled as Shahr-e Sukhteh and Shahr-i Shōkhta, is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture.

Shahr-e Sukhteh

It is located in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, the southeastern part of Iran, on the bank of the Helmand River, near the Zahedan-Zabol road. A proposal is submitted to include it in the World Heritage List of UNESCO.[1] The reasons for the unexpected rise and fall of the Burnt City are still wrapped in mystery. Artifacts recovered from the city demonstrate a peculiar incongruity with nearby civilizations of the time and it has been speculated that Shahr-e-Sookhteh might ultimately provide concrete evidence of a civilization east of prehistoric Persia that was independent of ancient Mesopotamia. Archaeology[edit] The settlement appeared around 3200 BC.