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Ear abnormalities

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Chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. Chondrodermatitis helicis nodularis in a 67-year-old man.

Chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis

See also[edit] List of cutaneous conditions References[edit] Jump up ^ Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). Cauliflower ear. The condition is most common among prize-fighters and martial arts competitors such as boxers, mixed martial artists, wrestlers, martial artists, and in full-contact sports such as rugby football.

Cauliflower ear

Protection[edit] Treatment[edit] Because an acute hematoma can lead to cauliflower ear, prompt evacuation of the blood is needed to prevent permanent deformity.[3] The outer ear is prone to infections, so antibiotics are usually prescribed. Pressure is applied by bandaging, helping the skin and the cartilage to reconnect. Without medical intervention the ear can suffer serious damage. History[edit] Historically, the condition has usually been seen with wrestlers.[5] An extensive literature and serious science on this condition developed between the 1860s and the turn of the century.

Some theorists argued ardently that it was a symptom of insanity and had nothing to do with mechanical causes. Anotia. Developmental biology of the ear[edit] The human ear and processing sound[edit] The human ear is divided into three sections.

Anotia

Each section has possesses its own specialized function. 1. The outer ear acts like a funnel and takes in the sound. 2. 3. Preauricular sinus and cyst. A preauricular sinus (also known as a congenital auricular fistula, a congenital preauricular fistula, an ear pit[1]:782, or a preauricular cyst[2]) is a common congenital malformation characterized by a nodule, dent or dimple located anywhere adjacent to the external ear.[3] They are inherited features and usually appear on one side, but may be present on both sides in 25 to 50% of cases.

Preauricular sinus and cyst

Causes[edit] Preauricular sinuses and cysts result from developmental defects of the first and second branchial arches.[4] This and other congenital ear malformations are sometimes associated with renal anomalies.[5] In rare cases they may be associated with branchio-oto-renal syndrome. Microtia. Classification[edit] There are four grades of microtia: Grade I: A less than complete development of the external ear with identifiable structures and a small but present external ear canalGrade II: A partially developed ear (usually the top portion is underdeveloped) with a closed [stenotic] external ear canal producing a conductive hearing loss.Grade III: Absence of the external ear with a small peanut-like vestige structure and an absence of the external ear canal and ear drum.

Microtia

Grade III microtia is the most common form of microtia.Grade IV: Absence of the total ear or anotia. Darwin's tubercle. This atavistic feature is so called because its description was first published by Charles Darwin in the opening pages of The Descent of Man, as evidence of a vestigial feature indicating common ancestry among primates.

Darwin's tubercle

However, Darwin himself named it the Woolnerian tip, after Thomas Woolner, a British sculptor who had depicted it in one of his sculptures and had first theorised that it was an atavistic feature. The gene for Darwin's tubercle is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, and has incomplete penetrance, meaning that those who possess the gene will not necessarily present with the phenotype.[2] Accessory auricle. An accessory auricle is considered a developmental anomaly resulting from the persistence of a structure which variably recapitulates the normal external ear.

Accessory auricle

Classification[edit] There may be several components or degress of development, ranging from an ear tag, preauricular appendage, preauricular tag, accessory tragus, to supernumerary ears or polyotia.[1] It is a relatively common congenital anomaly of the first branchial arch or second branchial arches. Other anomalies may be present concurrently, including cleft palate, cleft lip, or mandibular hypoplasia. There is a known association with Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome)[2] and with Wildervanck syndrome.[3][4][5] There may also be an association with congenital cartilaginous rest of the neck. Pressure ulcer. Pressure ulcers, also known as decubitus ulcers or bedsores, are localized injuries to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.

Pressure ulcer

The most common sites are the sacrum, coccyx, heels or the hips, but other sites such as the elbows, knees, ankles or the back of the cranium can be affected. Pressure ulcers occur due to pressure applied to soft tissue resulting in completely or partially obstructed blood flow to the soft tissue. Shear is also a cause, as it can pull on blood vessels that feed the skin. Pressure ulcers most commonly develop in persons who are not moving about or are confined to wheelchairs. It is widely believed that other factors can influence the tolerance of skin for pressure and shear, thereby increasing the risk of pressure ulcer development. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in hospital settings is high, but improvements are being made.