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Disorders

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Retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited, degenerative eye disease that causes severe vision impairment and often blindness.[1] The progress of RP is not consistent.

Retinitis pigmentosa

Some people will exhibit symptoms from infancy, others may not notice symptoms until later in life.[2] Generally, the later the onset, the more rapid is the deterioration in sight. [citation needed] Those who do not have RP have 90 degree peripheral vision, while some people who have RP have less than 90 degrees. Arnold–Chiari malformation. Chiari malformation, also known as Arnold–Chiari malformation, is a malformation of the brain.

Arnold–Chiari malformation

It consists of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum (the opening at the base of the skull), sometimes causing non-communicating hydrocephalus[1] as a result of obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow.[2] The cerebrospinal fluid outflow is caused by phase difference in outflow and influx of blood in the vasculature of the brain. Spinal muscular atrophy. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a genetic defect in the SMN1 gene, which encodes SMN, a protein widely expressed in all eukaryotic cells.

Spinal muscular atrophy

SMN1 is apparently selectively necessary for survival of motor neurons, as diminished abundance of the protein results in death of neuronal cells in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and subsequent system-wide muscle wasting (atrophy). Spinal muscular atrophy manifests in various degrees of severity which all have in common general muscle wasting and mobility impairment. Other body systems may be affected as well, particularly in early-onset forms. SMA is the most common genetic cause of infant death. Sickle-cell disease. Sickle-cell disease (SCD), or sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) or drepanocytosis, is a hereditary blood disorder, characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape.

Sickle-cell disease

Sickling decreases the cells' flexibility and results in a risk of various life-threatening complications. This sickling occurs because of a mutation in the haemoglobin gene. Individuals with one copy of the mutant gene display both normal and abnormal haemoglobin. This is an example of codominance. Life expectancy is shortened. Sickle-cell anaemia is a form of sickle-cell disease in which there is homozygosity for the mutation that causes HbS.

The term disease is applied because the inherited abnormality causes a pathological condition that can lead to death and severe complications. Epilepsy. Epilepsy cannot be cured, but seizures are controllable with medication in about 70% of cases.[5] In those whose seizures do not respond to medication, surgery, neurostimulation or dietary changes may be considered.

Epilepsy

Not all cases of epilepsy are lifelong, and a substantial number of people improve to the point that medication is no longer needed. Chronic fatigue syndrome. Although there is agreement that CFS poses genuine threats to health, happiness and productivity, various physicians' groups, researchers and patient advocates promote differing nomenclatures, diagnostic criteria, etiologic hypotheses and treatments, resulting in controversy about many aspects of the disorder.

Chronic fatigue syndrome

The name "chronic fatigue syndrome" is controversial; many patients and advocacy groups, as well as some experts, believe the name trivializes the medical condition and they promote a name change.[15] Classification[edit] Notable definitions include:[7] The different case definitions used to research the illness may influence the types of patients selected for studies,[20] and research also suggests subtypes of patients exist within the heterogeneous illness.[21][22][23][24] Clinical practice guidelines are generally based on case descriptions with the aim of improving diagnosis, management, and treatment.

Post-viral fatigue syndrome. Classification[edit] In the WHO's ICD-10, PVFS is listed as sub-category at G93.3 under category G93 'other disorders of the brain'.[2] Listed under PVFS is benign myalgic encephalomyelitis.[3] The term chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is also direct to sub-category G93.3 in the tabular list and alphabetic index of the ICD-10.[2][4] Post-viral syndromes may also include: post-polio syndrome and possibly chronic mononucleosis or other severe chronic viral infections.

Post-viral fatigue syndrome

Signs and symptoms[edit] The main symptoms of the syndrome are disabling fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, neurocognitive difficulties and mood disturbance.[1] Other symptoms experienced by some patients are those of nausea, dizziness, loss of appetite and patients may also present with unrefreshing sleep. Patients with this illness may explain that they experience good and bad days with their symptoms and their activity may range greatly from a bad to a good day.

Raynaud's phenomenon. In medicine, Raynaud's phenomenon /reɪˈnoʊz/ or Raynaud phenomenon is excessively reduced blood flow in response to cold or emotional stress, causing discoloration of the fingers, toes, and occasionally other areas.

Raynaud's phenomenon

This condition may also cause nails to become brittle with longitudinal ridges. Named after French physician Maurice Raynaud (1834–1881), the phenomenon is believed to be the result of vasospasms that decrease blood supply to the respective regions. Raynaud's phenomenon by itself is just a sign (hypoperfusion) accompanied by a symptom (discomfort). When linked to pathogenesis, it can be part of Raynaud's disease (also known as primary Raynaud's phenomenon), where the cause is unknown,[1] or part of Raynaud's syndrome (secondary Raynaud's phenomenon), which is a syndrome caused by a known primary disease, most commonly connective tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Signs and symptoms[edit] An image taken by a thermographic camera. Myofascial pain syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), also known as chronic myofascial pain (CMP), is a syndrome characterized by chronic pain caused by multiple trigger points and fascial constrictions.

Myofascial pain syndrome

Characteristic features of a myofascial trigger point include: focal point tenderness, reproduction of pain upon trigger point palpation, hardening of the muscle upon trigger point palpation, pseudo-weakness of the involved muscle, referred pain, and limited range of motion following approximately 5 seconds of sustained trigger point pressure.[1] Symptoms[edit] Myofascial pain can occur in distinct, isolated areas of the body, and because any muscle or fascia may be affected, this may cause a variety of localized symptoms.

More generally speaking, the muscular pain is steady, aching, and deep. Depending on the case and location the intensity can range from mild discomfort to excruciating and "lightning-like".[2] Knots may be visible or felt beneath the skin. Palpitation. Palpitation is an abnormality of heartbeat that ranges from often unnoticed skipped beats or accelerated heart rate to very noticeable changes accompanied by dizziness or difficulty breathing.

Palpitation

Palpitations are common and occur in most individuals with healthy hearts. Palpitations without underlying heart disease are generally considered benign. Heart murmur. Murmurs are pathologic heart sounds that are produced as a result of turbulent blood flow across the heart valve that is sufficient to produce audible noise.

Most murmurs can only be heard with the assistance of a stethoscope ("or auscultation"). A functional murmur or "physiologic murmur" is a heart murmur that is primarily due to physiologic conditions outside the heart, as opposed to structural defects in the heart itself. Irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or spastic colon is a symptom-based diagnosis. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a median entrapment neuropathy that causes paresthesia, pain, numbness, and other symptoms in the distribution of the median nerve due to its compression at the wrist in the carpal tunnel.

The pathophysiology is not completely understood but can be considered compression of the median nerve traveling through the carpal tunnel.[1] It appears to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[2] Some of the predisposing factors include: diabetes, obesity, pregnancy, hypothyroidism, and heavy manual work or work with vibrating tools. There is, however, little clinical data to prove that lighter, repetitive tasks can cause carpal tunnel syndrome. ALS - Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Signs and symptoms[edit] The disorder causes muscle weakness and atrophy throughout the body due to the degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. Unable to function, the muscles weaken and exhibit atrophy. Individuals affected by the disorder may ultimately lose the ability to initiate and control all voluntary movement, although bladder and bowel sphincters and the muscles responsible for eye movement are usually, but not always, spared until the final stages of the disease.[1] Cognitive function is generally spared for most patients, although some (about 5%) also have frontotemporal dementia.[2] A higher proportion of patients (30–50%) also have more subtle cognitive changes which may go unnoticed, but are revealed by detailed neuropsychological testing.

Rasmussen's Syndrome: Cameron Mott Has Half Her Brain Removed To Combat Rare Condition That Causes Seizures. Dunning–Kruger effect. The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability as much higher than it really is. Psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive incapacity, on the part of those with low ability, to recognize their ineptitude and evaluate their competence accurately.

Their research also suggests corollaries: high-ability individuals may underestimate their relative competence and may erroneously assume that tasks which are easy for them are also easy for others.[1] Dunning and Kruger have postulated that the effect is the result of internal illusion in those of low ability and external misperception in those of high ability: "The miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others.

Madonna–whore complex. Personality Disorder Information. Alcoholism/drug addiction. How Alcohol Affects the Brain. General Effects of Alcohol on the Brain Alcohol can affect several parts of the brain, but in general, alcohol contracts brain tissue and depresses the central nervous system. Also, alcohol destroys brain cells and unlike many other types of cells in the body, brain cells do not regenerate. Excessive drinking over a prolonged period of time can cause serious problems with cognition and memory.

When alcohol reaches the brain, it interferes with communication between nerve cells, by interacting with the receptors on some cells. The alcohol suppresses excitatory nerve pathway activity and increases inhibitory nerve pathway activity. Shellshock. By 1914 British doctors working in military hospitals noticed patients suffering from "shell shock". Seasonal Affective Disorder: Shining a light in your ear 'can brighten your winter mood'

By Lauren Paxman Updated: 13:31 GMT, 9 November 2011. A bright word in the ear for those with winter blues. Seasonal Affective Disorder – The Basics. First published on February 05, 2006. 15 Styles of Distorted Thinking. Hunting Alzheimer’s Early Signs - Science in 2011. Todd Heisler/The New York Times. Alzheimer's Symptoms, Treatment & Alzheimer's Disease Prevention Information - ThirdAge.com. Schizophrenia - Topic Overview. Neuroticism. Forer effect. A related and more general phenomenon is that of subjective validation.[1] Subjective validation occurs when two unrelated or even random events are perceived to be related because a belief, expectation, or hypothesis demands a relationship. Depressive realism.

Evidence for[edit] PhobiaGuide.com - List of Phobias. Diverticulitis (Diverticulosis) Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - How is the diagnosis of diverticulitis made on MedicineNet. Focus on Brain Disorders. About Chronic Pain - Symptoms, Treatment and Management. Alzheimer's information. Alzheimer's research. Seizure (Epilepsy) Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - Generalized seizures on MedicineNet. Epilepsy Links. Temporal lobe seizure. Autism, Aspergers, ADHD. Autism. Learning disorders.