background preloader

Voice disorders: classifications

Facebook Twitter

Laryngitis. Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx.

Laryngitis

Puberphonia. Puberphonia (also known as mutational falsetto or mutational chink) is the persistence of adolescent voice even after puberty.

Puberphonia

Introduction[edit] Normally adolescent males undergo voice changes due to a sudden increase in the length of the vocal cords due to the enlargement of the Adam's Apple. This is uncommon in females because their vocal cords do not show a sudden increase in length. This sudden increase in the length of the vocal cords is due to the sudden increase in testosterone levels found in pubescent males.[1] Definition[edit] Laryngeal papillomatosis.

Laryngeal papillomatosis, also known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis or glottal papillomatosis, is a rare medical condition (2 per 100,000 adults and 4.5 per 100,000 children)[1]:411, caused by a HPV infection of the throat.[2]:411 Laryngeal papillomatosis causes assorted tumors or papillomas to develop over a period.

Laryngeal papillomatosis

Without treatment it is potentially fatal as uncontrolled growths could obstruct the airway. Laryngeal papillomatosis is caused by HPV types 6 and 11, in which benign tumors form on the larynx or other areas of the respiratory tract. These tumors can recur frequently, may require repetitive surgery, and may interfere with breathing. The disease can be treated with surgery and antivirals. Transmission[edit] In general, physicians are not sure what causes certain people to develop laryngeal papillomatosis while others who have been exposed to HPV types 6 and 11 do not develop the disease.

Bogart–Bacall syndrome. Bogart–Bacall syndrome (BBS) is a voice disorder that is caused by abuse or overuse of the vocal cords.

Bogart–Bacall syndrome

People who speak or sing outside of their normal vocal range can develop BBS; symptoms are chiefly an unnaturally deep or rough voice, or dysphonia, and vocal fatigue.[1] The people most commonly afflicted are those who speak in a low-pitched voice, particularly if they have poor breath and vocal control. The syndrome can affect both men and women.[2] Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall both suffered from this mild vocal disorder, which has been named for them. Foreign accent syndrome. Foreign accent syndrome is a rare medical condition in which patients develop what appears to be a foreign accent.[1] Foreign accent syndrome usually results from a stroke,[1] but can also develop from head trauma,[1] migraines[2] or developmental problems.[3] The condition was first reported in 1907,[4] and between 1941 and 2009 there were sixty-two recorded cases.[3] Its symptoms result from distorted articulatory planning and coordination processes and although popular news articles commonly attempt to identify the closest regional accent, speakers suffering from foreign accent syndrome acquire neither a specific foreign accent nor any additional fluency in a foreign language.

Foreign accent syndrome

Despite an unconfirmed news report in 2010 that a Croatian speaker has gained the ability to speak fluent German after emergence from a coma,[5] there has been no verified case where a patient's foreign language skills have improved after a brain injury. Spasmodic dysphonia. Reinke's edema. Reinke's edema, also known as polypoid degeneration, is the swelling of the vocal folds due to fluid collection (edema) in superficial lamina propria of vocal folds (Reinke's space).

Reinke's edema

It is named after Friedrich B. Reinke.[1][2] Presentation[edit] Reinke's edema causes the vocal folds to swell giving them an uneven, sac-like appearance. They appear pale and translucent. Causes[edit] Common causes of Reinke's edema include smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, hormonal changes such as hypothyroidism and chronic voice abuse. Vocal cord paresis. Vocal cord paresis (or paralysis) is weakness of one or both vocal folds.

Vocal cord paresis

Symptoms of paresis include hoarseness; vocal fatigue; mild to severe reduction in vocal volume; pain in the throat when speaking; shortness of breath; aspiration (food or liquids going down the trachea) with frequent resultant coughing, and in extreme cases may cause death. Gargling fluids may also become difficult. Vocal cord paresis can greatly impact daily life, employment, job choice, social interactions, and leisure time pursuits. Reduced vocal cord mobility may decrease the effectiveness of coughing, swallowing, or sneezing in removing mucosal wastes from the laryngeal area. The resultant accumulations may allow for viral and bacterial colonization with an increased tendency for infections and throat discomfort.

Vocal fold cyst. Vocal fold cysts are collections of fluid in sac-like formations on the vocal folds.

Vocal fold cyst

Cysts can deteriorate the quality of human speech production, causing diplophonia, a condition where the vocal cords produce multiple tones at the same time, or dysphonia, an impaired quality of voice typically involving hoarseness or a breathy sound. Females are more likely than males to develop vocal fold cysts and the menstrual cycle may alter the size of the cyst. The cysts usually appear on one side of the vocal fold but may cause swelling on the opposite side due to irritation. There are two types of vocal fold cysts: mucus retention and epithermoid. Mucus retention cysts occur when a glandular duct becomes blocked and is unable to secrete. Initial treatment of the cysts involves vocal training and speech therapy along with medical interventions to decrease irritation of the cyst. List of voice disorders. Chorditis. Vocal fold nodule. A vocal cord nodule reduces or obstructs the ability of the vocal folds to create the rapid changes in air pressure which generate human speech.

Vocal fold nodule