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Mental disorders in Ancient Egypt and Messoptamia

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Wikipedia entry on mental disorders of Ancient Egypt and Messoptamia. Hallucinogen. Magic (paranormal) Magic or sorcery is an attempt to understand, experience and influence the world using rituals, symbols, actions, gestures and language.[1][2][3][4] Modern Western magicians generally state magic's primary purpose to be personal spiritual growth.[5] Modern theories of magic may see it as the result of a universal sympathy where some act can produce a result somewhere else, or as a collaboration with spirits who cause the effect.[6] The belief in and the practice of magic has been present since the earliest human cultures and continues to have an important religious and medicinal role in many cultures today.[7][8] Magic is often viewed with suspicion by the wider community, and is sometimes practiced in isolation and secrecy.[4]

Magic (paranormal)

Dream. Dreams mainly occur in the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage of sleep—when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake.

Dream

REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. At times, dreams may occur during other stages of sleep. However, these dreams tend to be much less vivid or memorable.[3] The length of a dream can vary; they may last for a few seconds, or approximately 20–30 minutes.[3] People are more likely to remember the dream if they are awakened during the REM phase. The average person has three to five dreams per night, but some may have up to seven dreams in one night.[4] The dreams tend to last longer as the night progresses.

Opinions about the meaning of dreams have varied and shifted through time and culture. Cultural meaning[edit] Ancient history[edit] The Sumerians in Mesopotamia left evidence of dreams dating back to 3100 BC. In ancient Egypt, as far back as 2000 BC, the Egyptians wrote down their dreams on papyrus. Retreat (spiritual) The meaning of a spiritual retreat can be different for different religious communities.

Retreat (spiritual)

Spiritual Retreats are an integral part of many Hindu, Buddhist, Christian and Sufi (Islamic) communities. In Hinduism and Buddhism, Meditative Retreats are seen by some as integral for reconnection to one's self. Retreats are also popular in Christian churches, and were established in today's form by St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), in his Spiritual Exercises. Ignatius was later to be made patron saint of spiritual retreats by Pope Pius XI in 1922.

Meditative retreats are an important practice in Sufism, the mystical path of Islam. A retreat can either be a time of solitude or a community experience. Spiritual retreats allow time for reflection, prayer, or meditation. The Christian retreat can be defined in the most simplest of terms as a definite time (from a few hours in length to a month) spent away from one's normal life for the purpose of reconnecting, usually in prayer, with God. Ebers Papyrus. The manuscript[edit] The papyrus was written in about 1500 BC, but it is believed to have been copied from earlier texts, perhaps dating as far back as 3400 BC.[1] The Ebers Papyrus is a 110-page scroll, which is about 20 meters long.[2] Along with the Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (c. 1800 BC), the Edwin Smith papyrus (c. 1600 BC), the Hearst papyrus (c. 1600 BC), the Brugsch Papyrus (c. 1300 BC), the London Medical Papyrus (c. 1300 BC), the Ebers Papyrus is among the oldest preserved medical documents.

Ebers Papyrus

The Brugsch Papyrus provides parallel passages to the Ebers Papyrus, helping to clarify certain passages of the latter. Hysteria. Hysteria, in its colloquial use, describes unmanageable emotional excesses.

Hysteria

People who are "hysterical" often lose self-control due to an overwhelming fear that may be caused by events in one's past[citation needed] that involved some sort of severe conflict. The fear can be centered on a body part, or most commonly, on an imagined problem with that body part. Disease is a common complaint; see also body dysmorphic disorder and hypochondriasis. Melancholia. In a modern context, "melancholy" applies only to the mental or emotional symptoms of depression or despondency; historically, "melancholia" could be physical as well as mental, and melancholic conditions were classified as such by their common cause rather than by their properties.[3] History[edit] Hippocrates is considered the first physician to describe melancholia or depression, clinically.[4][5] The name "melancholia" comes from the old medical belief of the four humors: disease or ailment being caused by an imbalance in one or other of the four basic bodily liquids, or humors.

Melancholia

Personality types were similarly determined by the dominant humor in a particular person. According to Hippocrates, melancholia was caused by an excess of black bile,[6] hence the name, which means 'black bile', from Ancient Greek μέλας (melas), "dark, black",[7] and χολή (kholé), "bile";[8] a person whose constitution tended to have a preponderance of black bile had a melancholic disposition.