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Speech disorder: classifications

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Speech sound disorder

Dysarthria. Dysarthria that has progressed to or presents as a total loss of speech may be referred to as anarthria.


Neurological injury due to damage in the central or peripheral nervous system may result in weakness, paralysis, or a lack of coordination of the motor-speech system, producing dysarthria.[1] These effects in turn hinder control over the tongue, throat, lips or lungs for example; swallowing problems (dysphagia) are also often present. The term dysarthria does not include speech disorders from structural abnormalities, such as cleft palate, and must not be confused with apraxia of speech, which refers to problems in the planning and programming aspect of the motor-speech system.[4] Cranial nerves that control these muscles include the trigeminal nerve's motor branch (V), the facial nerve (VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the vagus nerve (X), and the hypoglossal nerve (XII).

Classification[edit] Dysarthrias are classified in multiple ways based on the presentation of symptoms. Muteness. Muteness or mutism (from Latin mutus, meaning "silent") is an inability to speak caused by a speech disorder.


Causes[edit] Those who are physically mute may have problems with the parts of the human body required for human speech (the throat, vocal cords, lungs, mouth, or tongue, etc.). Being mute is often associated with deafness as people who have been unable to hear from birth may not be able to articulate words correctly (see deaf-mute), but muteness describes people who can hear but cannot talk. Other causes include intellectual disability and autism. A person can be born mute, or become mute later in life due to injury or disease. Trauma or injury to the Broca's area of the brain can cause muteness. Dysprosody. Dysprosody, which may manifest as pseudo-foreign accent syndrome, refers to a disorder in which one or more of the prosodic functions are either compromised or eliminated completely.[1] History[edit] The first documented occurrence of dysprosody was described by Pierre Marie, a French neurologist, in 1907.


Marie described the case of a Frenchman who started speaking in an Alsatian accent after suffering from a cerebrovascular accident which caused right hemiplegia.[4] The next documented report of dysprosody occurred in 1919 by Arnold Pick, a German neurologist. He noticed a 29-year-old Czechoslovakian had started speaking in a Polish accent following a stroke. The most well documented account of dysprosody was in 1943 by G. There have been another 21 cases documented up until 1978. There have been more recent occurrences of people who have developed accents after brain injuries, specifically strokes.

Cluttering. Cluttering (also called tachyphemia) is a speech and communication disorder characterized by a rapid rate making speech difficult to understand, erratic rhythm, poor syntax or grammar, and words or groups of words unrelated to the sentence.


Classification[edit] Cluttering is a speech and communication disorder that has also been described as a fluency disorder.[1] It is defined as: "Cluttering is a fluency disorder characterized by a rate that is perceived to be abnormally rapid, irregular, or both for the speaker (although measured syllable rates may not exceed normal limits).

Stuttering. Stuttering (/ˈstʌtərɪŋ/; alalia syllabaris), also known as stammering (/ˈstæmərɪŋ/; alalia literalis or anarthria literalis), is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds.[1] The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels semivowels.


For many people who stutter, repetition is the primary problem. Blocks and prolongations are learned mechanisms to mask repetition, as the fear of repetitive speaking in public is often the main cause of psychological unease. The impact of stuttering on a person's functioning and emotional state can be severe. Apraxia of speech. Individuals with AOS have difficulty connecting speech messages from the brain to the mouth.[2] AOS is a loss of prior speech ability resulting from a stroke, brain injury, or progressive illness.

Apraxia of speech

Developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), also known as childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and developmental apraxia of speech (DAS);[3][4] is an inability to utilize motor planning to perform movements necessary for speech during a child's language learning process. Although the causes differ between AOS and DVD, the main characteristics and treatments are similar.[2][5] Developmental verbal dyspraxia. Apraxia. Childhood Apraxia of Speech.