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Diseases

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Angioedema. Angioedema, also known as angiooedema or Quincke's edema, is the rapid swelling (edema) of the dermis, subcutaneous tissue,[1] mucosa and submucosal tissues.

Angioedema

It is very similar to urticaria, but urticaria, commonly known as hives, occurs in the upper dermis.[1] The term angioneurotic oedema was used for this condition in the belief that there was nervous system involvement, but this is no longer thought to be the case. Cases where angioedema progresses rapidly should be treated as a medical emergency, as airway obstruction and suffocation can occur. Epinephrine may be life-saving when the cause of angioedema is allergic. In the case of hereditary angioedema, treatment with epinephrine has not been shown to be helpful.

Progeria. Progeria (pronunciation: /proʊˈdʒɪəriə/[1][2]) (Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome,[3][4] HGPS, progeria syndrome[4]) is an extremely rare genetic disorder wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at a very early age.[5] Progeria is one of several progeroid syndromes.[6] The word progeria comes from the Greek words "pro" (πρό), meaning "before" or "premature", and "gēras" (γῆρας), meaning "old age".[7] The disorder has a very low incidence rate, occurring in an estimated 1 per 8 million live births.[8] Those born with progeria typically live to their mid teens to early twenties.[9][10] It is a genetic condition that occurs as a new mutation, and is rarely inherited, as carriers usually do not live to reproduce.

Progeria

Although the term progeria applies strictly speaking to all diseases characterized by premature aging symptoms, and is often used as such, it is often applied specifically in reference to Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromatosis type I, in which the nerve tissue grows tumors (neurofibromas) that may be benign and may cause serious damage by compressing nerves and other tissues.Neurofibromatosis type II, in which bilateral acoustic neuromas (tumors of the vestibulocochlear nerve or cranial nerve 8 (CN VIII) also known as schwannoma) develop, often leading to hearing loss.Schwannomatosis, in which painful schwannomas develop on cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves.

Neurofibromatosis

Conditions which may be confused with NF-1 but which are not considered NF include: The neurofibromatoses are considered as RASopathies and as members of the neurocutaneous syndromes (phakomatoses).[2] In addition to the types of neurofibromatosis, the phakomatoses also include tuberous sclerosis, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Porphyria. The porphyrias are a group of rare diseases in which chemical substances called porphyrins accumulate.

Porphyria

The body requires porphyrins to produce heme, which carries oxygen in the blood; but, in the porphyrias, there is a deficiency (inherited or acquired) of the enzymes that transform the various porphyrins into others, leading to abnormally high levels of one or more of these substances. This manifests with either neurological complications or skin problems or occasionally both. Porphyrias are classified in two ways, by symptoms and by pathophysiology.

Symptomatically, acute porphyrias primarily cause brain and nerve involvement, often with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, neuropathy and mental disturbances. The term porphyria is derived from the Greek πορφύρα, porphyra, meaning "purple pigment, a reference to the color of the porphyrins. Signs and symptoms[edit] Noma (disease) Noma (also referred to as cancrum oris, fusospirochetal gangrene, necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis, stomatitis gangrenosa)[1] is a rapidly progressive, polymicrobial, often gangrenous infection of the mouth or genitals.

Noma (disease)

Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia are thought to be key players in the process and interact with one or more other bacterial organisms (such as Borrelia vincentii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Staphylococcus aureus, and nonhemolytic Streptococcus spp).[2] The reported predisposing factors include:[3][4] Argyria. Not to be confused with agyria.

Argyria

Argyria or argyrosis (from Ancient Greek: ἄργυρος argyros silver) is a condition caused by inappropriate exposure to chemical compounds of the element silver, or to silver dust.[1] The most dramatic symptom of argyria is that the skin turns blue or bluish-grey. It may take the form of generalized argyria or local argyria. Generalized argyria affects large areas over much of the visible surface of the body. Hemangioma. Terminology[edit] Signs and symptoms[edit] Hemangiomas are connected to the circulatory system.

Hemangioma

Cutaneous horn. Cutaneous horns, also known by the Latin name cornu cutaneum, are unusual keratinous skin tumors with the appearance of horns, or sometimes of wood or coral.

Cutaneous horn

Formally, this is a clinical diagnosis for a "conical projection above the surface of the skin. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), sometimes referred to as Stone Man Syndrome, is an extremely rare disease of the connective tissue.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva

A mutation of the body's repair mechanism causes fibrous tissue (including muscle, tendon, and ligament) to be ossified spontaneously or when damaged. In many cases, injuries can cause joints to become permanently frozen in place. Surgical removal of the extra bone growths has been shown to cause the body to "repair" the affected area with more bone.[1] Causes[edit] FOP is caused by an autosomal dominant allele on chromosome 2q23-24.[2] The allele has variable expressivity, but complete penetrance. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (also called Lewandowsky-Lutz dysplasia), colloquially known as tree man illness is an extremely rare autosomal recessive genetic[1] hereditary skin disorder associated with a high risk of carcinoma of the skin.

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis

It is characterized by abnormal susceptibility to human papillomaviruses (HPVs) of the skin.[2] The resulting uncontrolled HPV infections result in the growth of scaly macules and papules, particularly on the hands and feet. Progeria. Progeria (pronunciation: /proʊˈdʒɪəriə/[1][2]) (Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome,[3][4] HGPS, progeria syndrome[4]) is an extremely rare genetic disorder wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at a very early age.

Progeria is one of several progeroid syndromes. The word progeria comes from the Greek words "pro" (πρό), meaning "before" or "premature", and "gēras" (γῆρας), meaning "old age". The disorder has a very low incidence rate, occurring in an estimated 1 per 8 million live births.[5] Those born with progeria typically live to their mid teens to early twenties.[6][7] It is a genetic condition that occurs as a new mutation, and is rarely inherited, as patients usually do not live to reproduce. Fibromyalgia. The treatment of fibromyalgia can be difficult. Recommendations often include getting enough sleep, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet.[4] Cognitive behavioral therapy may also be helpful.[3] The medications duloxetine, milnacipran, or pregabalin may be used.[4] Use of opioid pain medication is controversial with some stating their use is poorly supported by evidence[4][7] and others saying that weak opioids may be reasonable if other medications are not effective.[8] Dietary supplements also lack evidence to support their use.

While fibromyalgia can last a long time, it does not result in death or tissue damage.[4] Fibromyalgia is estimated to affect 2–8% of the population. Females are affected about twice as often as males. Rates appear similar in different areas of the world and among different cultures. Classification[edit] Differences in psychological and autonomic nervous system profiles among affected individuals may indicate the existence of fibromyalgia subtypes.

These People Reversed Their Diabetes In 30 Days With This One Change. Diabetes is one of the most rampant diseases of our time. According to the American Diabetes Association, in 2012, 29.1 million Americans, or 9.3% of the population, had diabetes. [1] In fact, diabetes is growing at a fairly fast rate. A study completed by the CDC & Research Triangle Institute concluded that If recent trends in diabetes prevalence rates continue linearly over the next 50 years, future changes in the size and demographic characteristics of the U.S. population will lead to dramatic increases in the number of Americans with diagnosed diabetes. [2] According to the current mainstream approach, the major goal in treating diabetes is to minimize any elevation of blood sugar (glucose) without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar.

Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. But what if we could not only prevent diabetes before it happened, but also reverse it once it shows up? Dysautonomia. Dysautonomia (or autonomic dysfunction) is any disease or malfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The autonomic nervous system controls a number of functions in the body, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestive tract peristalsis, and sweating, amongst others.

Dysfunction of the ANS can involve any of these functions. A number of conditions are forms of dysautonomia: postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST), vasovagal syncope, pure autonomic failure, neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), neurally mediated hypotension (NMH), orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension, autonomic instability, paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, and a number of lesser-known disorders such as cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. Signs and symptoms[edit] The symptoms of dysautonomia are numerous and vary widely from person to person. The primary symptoms present in patients with dysautonomia are: McLeod syndrome. Clinical features[edit] Laboratory features[edit] McLeod syndrome is one of only a few disorders in which acanthocytes may be found on the peripheral blood smear. Blood evaluation may show signs of hemolytic anemia.

Elevated creatine kinase can be seen with myopathy in McLeod syndrome. Disease. Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. Epidemiology.

Acquired conditions

Bacterial infections. Cancer. Viral diseases. Remains of 'End of the World' Epidemic Found in Ancient Egypt. Archaeologists have uncovered the remains of an epidemic in Egypt so terrible that one ancient writer believed the world was coming to an end. Working at the Funerary Complex of Harwa and Akhimenru in the west bank of the ancient city of Thebes (modern-day Luxor) in Egypt, the team of the Italian Archaeological Mission to Luxor (MAIL) found bodies covered with a thick layer of lime (historically used as a disinfectant). Pathology. Pathology is the precise study and diagnosis of disease. Heart attack.