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Diseases of the Ear

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Tinnitus. Tinnitus is usually a subjective phenomenon, such that it cannot be objectively measured.


The condition is often rated clinically on a simple scale from "slight" to "catastrophic" according to the difficulties it imposes, such as interference with sleep, quiet activities, and normal daily activities.[3] If there is an underlying cause, treating it may lead to improvements.[4] Otherwise typically management involves talk therapy.[5] As of 2013, there are no effective medications.[4] It is common, affecting about 10-15% of people.[5] Most however tolerate it well, with it being a significant problem in only 1-2% of people.[5] Signs and symptoms Tinnitus can be perceived in one or both ears or in the head. The sound perceived may range from a quiet background noise to one that can be heard even over loud external sounds. Course There has been little research on the course of tinnitus, and most research has been retrospective.

Psychological Causes Objective tinnitus Subjective tinnitus Diagnosis. Otitis media. Otitis media (Latin for "inflammation of the middle ear") or tympanitis is the medical term for middle ear inflammation.

Otitis media

There are 2 major types of otitis media: acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. The former is usually symptomatic, especially ear pain (otalgia), whereas the latter is most commonly without acute symptoms. Chronic suppurative otitis media, incorrectly called “chronic otitis media,” is less common and is a complication of acute otitis media, and is associated with perforation of the ear drum, with or without drainage; all 3 of these conditions are most frequently associated with hearing loss. Otitis Media is very common in childhood but can occur at any age. Health effects from noise. Traffic is the main source of noise pollution in cities, particularly from tires.

Health effects from noise

Noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Elevated workplace or other noise can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, annoyance, and sleep disturbance. Changes in the immune system and birth defects have been attributed to noise exposure.[1] Cholesteatoma. Cholesteatoma is a destructive and expanding growth consisting of keratinizing squamous epithelium in the middle ear and/or mastoid process.


Although these are not strictly speaking tumours or cancers they can still cause significant problems because of their erosive and expansile properties resulting in the destruction of the ossicles as well as their possible spread through the base of the skull into the brain. They are also often infected and result in chronically draining ears. Classification and Pathogenesis[edit] There are two types: congenital and acquired. Auditory processing disorder. Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information.[1] Individuals with APD usually have normal structure and function of the outer, middle and inner ear (peripheral hearing).

Auditory processing disorder

However, they cannot process the information they hear in the same way as others do, which leads to difficulties in recognizing and interpreting sounds, especially the sounds composing speech. It is thought that these difficulties arise from dysfunction in the central nervous system (i.e., brain). APD does not feature in mainstream diagnostic classifications such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV). Vertigo. Not to be confused with acrophobia, an extreme or irrational fear of heights.


Vertigo /ˈvɜrtɨɡoʊ/ (from the Latin vertō "a whirling or spinning movement"[1]) is a subtype of dizziness in which a patient inappropriately experiences the perception of motion (usually a spinning motion) due to dysfunction of the vestibular system.[2][3][4] It is often associated with nausea and vomiting as well as a balance disorder, causing difficulties with standing or walking. There are three types of vertigo.

The first is known as objective[5][6] and describes when the patient has the sensation that objects in the environment are moving. The second type of vertigo is known as subjective[5][6] and refers to when the patient feels as if they are moving. The third type is known as pseudovertigo,[7] an intensive sensation of rotation inside the patient's head. Hearing loss. It is caused by many factors, including: genetics, aging, exposure to noise, illness, chemicals and physical trauma.

Hearing loss

Hearing testing may be used to determine the severity of the hearing loss. While the results are expressed in decibels, hearing loss is usually described as mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderately severe, severe, or profound. Hearing loss is usually acquired by a person who at some point in life had no hearing impairment. There are a number of measures that can prevent hearing loss and include avoidance of loud noise, chemical agents, and physical trauma. Testing for poor hearing is recommended for all newborns.[2] But, in some cases such as due to disease, illness, or genetics, it is impossible to reverse or prevent. Definition[edit] Hearing loss[edit] Speech perception[edit] Another aspect of hearing involves the perceived clarity of a sound rather than its amplitude.

Injury to the outer ear. Injury to the Ear canal. Injury to the Middle ear. Injury to the Inner ear.