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Diseases and disorders of the Uterus

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Uterus transplantation. Hysterectomy. Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus.


It may also involve removal of the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes and other surrounding structures. Removal of the uterus renders the patient unable to bear children (as does removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes) and has surgical risks as well as long-term effects, so the surgery is normally recommended when other treatment options are not available or have failed. It is expected that the frequency of hysterectomies for non-malignant indications will fall as there are good alternatives in many cases.[3] Oophorectomy (removal of ovaries) is frequently done together with hysterectomy to decrease the risk of ovarian cancer.

Retroverted uterus. A retroverted uterus (tilted uterus, tipped uterus) is a uterus that is tilted posteriorly.

Retroverted uterus

This is in contrast to the slightly "anteverted" uterus that most women have, which is tipped forward toward the bladder, with the anterior end slightly concave. Between 1 in 3 and 1 in 5 women (depending on the source) has a retroverted uterus, which is tipped backwards towards the spine. Related terms[edit] The following table distinguishes among some of the terms used for the position of the uterus: A retroverted uterus should be distinguished from the following: Additional terms include: Uterine prolapse. Cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection appears to be involved in the development of more than 90% of cases;[3][4] most people who have had HPV infections, however, do not develop cervical cancer.[5][6] Other risk factors include: smoking, a weak immune system, birth control pills, starting sex at a young age and having many sexual partners, but these are less important.[1][7] Cervical cancer typically develops from precancerous changes over 10 to 20 years.[5] There are a few types of cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer

About 90% are squamous cell carcinomas, 10% are adenocarcinoma and a small number are other types.[7] Diagnosis is typically by cervical screening followed by a biopsy. Endometrial cancer. Uterine fibroid. A uterine fibroid is a leiomyoma (benign tumor from smooth muscle tissue) that originates from the smooth muscle layer (myometrium) of the uterus.

Uterine fibroid

Fibroids are often multiple and if the uterus contains too many leiomyomata to count, it is referred to as diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis. The malignant version of a fibroid is extremely uncommon and termed a leiomyosarcoma. Other common names are uterine leiomyoma,[1] myoma, fibromyoma, fibroleiomyoma. Fibroids are the most common benign tumors in females and typically found during the middle and later reproductive years.

While most fibroids are asymptomatic, they can grow and cause heavy and painful menstruation, painful sexual intercourse, and urinary frequency and urgency. In the United States, symptoms caused by uterine fibroids are a very frequent indication for hysterectomy.[3] Signs and symptoms[edit] Fibroids, particularly when small, may be entirely asymptomatic. Adenomyosis. Adenomyosis (pronounced A - den - oh - my - oh - sis) is a medical condition characterized by the presence of ectopic glandular tissue found in muscle.[1] The term adenomyosis is derived from the Greek terms adeno- (meaning gland), myo- (meaning muscle), and -osis (meaning condition).


Previously named as endometriosis interna, adenomyosis actually differs from endometriosis and these two disease entities are found together in only 10% of the cases.[2] Endometritis. The term "endomyometritis" is sometimes used to specify inflammation of the endometrium and the myometrium.[2] Acute Endometritis[edit] Acute Endometritis is characterized by infection.


The organisms isolated are most often infection are believed to be because of compromised abortions, delivery, medical instrumentation, and retention of placental fragments.[3] There is not enough evidence for the use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent endometritis after manual removal of placental in vaginal birth.[4] Histologically, neutrophilic infiltration of the endometrial tissue is present during acute endometritis. The clinical presentation is typically high fever and purulent vaginal discharge. Menstruation after acute endometritis is excessive and in uncomplicated cases can resolve after 2 weeks of clindamycin and gentamicin IV antibiotic treatment. In certain populations, it has been associated with Mycoplasma genitalium.[5] Pyometra. Pyometra or pyometrea is a uterine infection.


Though it is most commonly known as a disease of the unaltered female dog, it is also a notable human disease. It is also seen in female cats (queens), rabbits, hamsters, ferrets, rats and guinea pigs. Pyometra is an important disease to be aware of for any dog owner because of the sudden nature of the disease and the deadly consequences if left untreated.

It has been compared to acute appendicitis in humans, because both are essentially empyemas within an abdominal organ. Uterine malformation. A uterine malformation is a type of female genital malformation resulting from an abnormal development of the Müllerian duct(s) during embryogenesis.

Uterine malformation

Symptoms range from amenorrhea, infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss, and pain, to normal functioning depending on the nature of the defect. Prevalence[edit] The prevalence of uterine malformation is estimated to be 6.7% in the general population, slightly higher (7.3%) in the infertility population, and significantly higher in a population of women with a history of recurrent miscarriages (16%).[1] Types[edit] The American Fertility Society (now American Society of Reproductive Medicine) Classification distinguishes: Class I: Müllerian agenesis (absent uterus). A uterine septum can be corrected by hysteroscopic surgery. Uterus didelphys. "Didelphys" redirects here.

Uterus didelphys

For the genus commonly known as large American opossums, see didelphis. Müllerian agenesis. Müllerian agenesis, also called Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome or MRKH, named after August Franz Joseph Karl Mayer, Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Hermann Kuster, and G.

Müllerian agenesis

A. Hauser, is a congenital malformation characterized by a failure of the Müllerian duct to develop, resulting in a missing uterus and variable degrees of vaginal hypoplasia of its upper portion. It is the most common cause of primary amenorrhoea. [1] Signs and symptoms[edit] An individual with this condition is hormonally normal; that is, they will enter puberty with development of secondary sexual characteristics including thelarche and adrenarche (pubic hair). If there is no uterus, people with MRKH cannot carry a pregnancy. People with MRKH typically discover the condition when, during puberty years, the menstrual cycle does not start (primary amenorrhoea). Asherman's syndrome.

Hematometra. Hematometra or hemometra is a medical condition involving collection or retention of blood in the uterus. It is most commonly caused by an imperforate hymen or a transverse vaginal septum. Signs and symptoms[edit] Hematometra typically presents as cyclic, cramping pain in the midline of the pelvis or lower abdomen.[1] Patients may also report urinary frequency and urinary retention.[2] Premenopausal women with hematometra often experience abnormal vaginal bleeding, including dysmenorrhea (pain during menstruation) or amenorrhea (lack of menstruation), while postmenopausal women are more likely to be asymptomatic.[3] Due to the accumulation of blood in the uterus, patients may develop low blood pressure or a vasovagal response.[4] When palpated, the uterus will typically feel firm and enlarged.[4]