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Demographics of the Republic of Ireland

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Genetic research suggests that the earliest settlers migrated from Iberia following the most recent ice age.[87] After the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age, migrants introduced Celtic language and culture.

Migrants from the two latter eras still represent the genetic heritage of most Irish people.[88][89] Gaelic tradition expanded and became the dominant form over time. Irish people are a combination of Gaelic, Norse, Anglo-Norman, English, Scottish, French, and Welsh ancestry.

The population of Ireland stood at 4,588,252 in 2011, an increase of 8.2% since 2006.[90] As of 2011, Ireland had the highest birth rate in the European Union (16 births per 1,000 of population).[91] In 2012, 35.1% of births were to unmarried women.[92] Annual population growth rates exceeded 2% during the 2002-2006 intercensal period, which was attributed to high rates of natural increase and immigration.[93] This rate declined somewhat during the subsequent 2006-2011 intercensal period, with an average annual percentage change of 1.6%.

At the time of 2011 census, the number of non-Irish nationals was recorded at 544,357, comprising 12% of the total population. This is up nearly 2.5 times the number of non-Irish nationals recorded in the 2002 (224,261), when the question of nationality was asked for the first time. The five largest non-national cohorts were Polish (122,585), UK (112,259), Lithuanian (36,683), Latvian (20,593) and Nigerian (17,642) respectively.[94]

An ESRI report from 2006 found that 35% of migrants surveyed reported having experienced harassment on the street, on public transport or in public places.

However, discrimination was not experienced equally among immigrants. North Africans and Asians generally experienced much lower levels of discrimination than black south/central Africans, as did Central Europeans from the more recent newcomers to the European Union (mainly Poles after Poland joined the EU as a full member in 2004), who comprise the majority of Irish immigrants. In the same survey, immigrants reported being most likely to socialise with people from their own country of origin in Ireland, followed by Irish people. Although this varied too between regional groups with Asians, for example, reporting the least difficulty in socialising with Irish people and North Africans reporting the most difficulty.

Celts. Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples: core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BC Lusitanian area of Iberia where Celtic presence is uncertain The Celts (/ˈkɛlts/, occasionally /ˈsɛlts/, see pronunciation of Celtic) or Kelts were an ethnolinguistic group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had a similar culture,[1] although the relationship between the ethnic, linguistic and cultural elements remains uncertain and controversial.

Celts

The earliest undisputed direct examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions, beginning in the 6th century BC.[6] Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names. Names and terminology Continental Celts are the Celtic-speaking people of mainland Europe and Insular Celts are the Celtic-speaking peoples of the British and Irish islands and their descendants. Origins. Demographics of the Republic of Ireland. Ireland had a population of 4,581,269 as of the 2011 census.[1] Demographic history[edit]

Demographics of the Republic of Ireland

Irish population analysis. The population of the island of Ireland in 2012 was approximately 6.4 million comprising 4.58 million in the Republic of Ireland with another 1.8 million in Northern Ireland.

Irish population analysis

Although this is a significant growth over recent years, it is lower than historical figures. Below are some statistics to illustrate the rise, fall and rise again of the population since 1841. The statistics also illustrate a massive population shift from the west to the east of the country and increasing urbanisation. Counties such as Mayo, Roscommon, Donegal and Leitrim have become depopulated while counties surrounding Dublin including Wicklow, Kildare, Louth and Meath have seen rapid population growth in recent years. Historical country population[edit]

Language

Healthcare. Healthcare in the Republic of Ireland. The HSE is responsible for providing health and personal social services to everyone living in Ireland.

Healthcare in the Republic of Ireland

Health care in Ireland is two-tier: public and private sectors exist. The public health care system is governed by the Health Act 2004,[1] which established a new body to be responsible for providing health and personal social services to everyone living in Ireland – the Health Service Executive. The new national health service came into being officially on 1 January 2005; however the new structures are currently in the process of being established as the reform programme continues. In addition to the public-sector, there is also a large private healthcare market. In 2010 Ireland spent €2,862 per capita on health, compared to a European Union average of €2,172 per capita,[2] of this spending approximately 79% was government expenditure.[3] Health care system[edit] Total health spending as a percentage of GDP for Ireland compared amongst various other first world nations from 2005 to 2008.

Education in the Republic of Ireland. The levels of education in Ireland are primary, secondary and higher (often known as "third-level") education.

Education in the Republic of Ireland

In recent years further education has grown immensely. Growth in the economy since the 1960s has driven much of the change in the education system. Education in Ireland is free at all levels, including college (university), but only for students applying from the European Union.[1] For universities there are student service fees (up to €2,500 in 2013)[2] which students are required to pay on registration, to cover examinations, insurance and registration costs.[3][4] Introduction[edit] In 1973 the requirement to pass the Irish language in order to receive a second-level certificate was dropped[7] although a student attending a school which receives public money must be taught the language.

Years[edit] Education. Religion in the Republic of Ireland. Religion.