The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females). The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates), or 8.33 births per 1000 inhabitants, is one of the lowest in the world. Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate. The Federal Statistical Office of Germany has forecast that the population could shrink to between 65 and 70 million by 2060 (depending on the level of net migration). However, such forecasts have often been proven wrong in the past, and Germany is currently witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s. It is notably experiencing a strong increase in the number of well-educated migrants. In 2012, 300,000 more immigrants than emigrants were reported in Germany.
Development of German population since 1800
Germans by nationality make up 92.3% of the population of Germany. As of 2011 and about six million foreign citizens (7.7% of the population) were registered in Germany. Regarding ethnic background, 20% of the country's residents, or more than 16 million people, were of foreign or partially foreign descent (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates), 96% of whom lived in the former West Germany or Berlin. In 2010, 2.3 million families with children under 18 years were living in Germany, in which at least one parent had foreign roots. They represented 29% of the total of 8.1 million families with minor children. Compared with 2005 – the year when the microcensus started to collect detailed information on the population with a migrant background – the proportion of migrant families has risen by 2 percentage points.
Most of the families with a migrant background live in the western part of Germany. In 2010, the proportion of migrant families in all families was 32% in the pre-unification territory of the Federal Republic. This figure was more than double that in the new Länder (including Berlin) where it stood at 15%. Families with a migrant background more often have three or more minor children in the household than families without a migrant background. In 2010, about 15% of the families with a migrant background contained three or more minor children, as compared with just 9% of the families without a migrant background.
The United Nations Population Fund lists Germany as host to the third-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 10 million of all 191 million migrants. As a consequence of restrictions to Germany's formerly rather unrestricted laws on asylum and immigration, the number of immigrants seeking asylum or claiming German ethnicity (mostly from the former Soviet Union) has been declining steadily since 2000. In 2009, 20% of the population had immigrant roots, the highest since 1945. As of 2008, the largest national group was from Turkey (2.5 million), followed by Italy (776,000) and Poland (687,000). About 3 million "Aussiedler"—ethnic Germans, mainly from the former eastern bloc—have resettled in Germany since 1987. Large numbers of people with full or significant German ancestry are found in the United States, Brazil, Argentina and Canada. Most ethnic minorities (especially those of non-European origin) reside in large urban areas like Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Rhine-Ruhr, Rhine-Neckar and Munich. The percentage of non-Germans and immigrants is rather low in rural areas and small towns, especially in the East German states of the former GDR territory.
Ethnic groups in Germany
Other Europeans (7.3%)
Other Middle Easterners (1.2%)
Black Africans (1%)
Demographics of Germany. The demography of Germany is monitored by the "Statistisches Bundesamt" (Federal Statistical Office of Germany).
According to the first census since the reunification, Germany's population was counted to be 80,219,695 on May 9, 2011, making it the 16th most populous country in the world. Germany's population is characterized by zero or declining growth, with an aging population and smaller cohort of youths. The United Nations Population Fund lists Germany as host to the third-highest number of international migrants worldwide. More than 16 million people are of foreign/immigrant descent (first and second generation, including mixed heritage and ethnic German repatriates and their descendants). 96.1% of those reside in western Germany and Berlin. About seven million of them are foreign residents, which is defined as those not having German citizenship.
Germans. Germans (German: Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history, and speak the German language as their mother tongue.
Social issues in Germany. The German social market economy (soziale Marktwirtschaft) was the economic policy ever since the Federal Republic of West Germany was founded in 1948.
This policy brought about the economic miracle that rebuilt Western Germany from scratch after World War II to one of the largest economies in the World. However, Germany still continues to struggle with a number of social issues. Economic issues Unemployment rates vary by region, gender, educational attainment and ethnic group. A growing number of Germans are poor and depend on welfare. Ethnic and cultural issues Religion in Germany. Religion. Languages. Languages of Germany. The official language of Germany is Standard German, with over 95% of the country speaking Standard German or German dialects as their first language. This figure includes speakers of Northern Low Saxon, a recognized minority or regional language which is not considered separately from Standard German in statistics.
Recognized minority languages have official status as well, usually in their respective regions. These are, together with Low Saxon, the following four: Minority languages Recognized minority first languages: Immigrant languages Immigrant languages spoken by sizable communities of first and second-generation (dominant origin of the speakers in brackets): Most Germans also learn English as their first foreign language in school. File:Knowledge German EU map.png. Education. Education in Germany. Sign of different school types on a school complex in Germany The responsibility for the German education system lies primarily with the states (Länder) while the federal government plays only a minor role.
Optional Kindergarten (nursery school) education is provided for all children between two and six years of age, after which school attendance is compulsory. The system varies throughout Germany because each state (Land) decides its own educational policies. Most children, however, first attend Grundschule from the age of six to ten.
Many of Germany's hundred or so institutions of higher learning charge little or no tuition by international comparison. Students usually must prove through examinations that they are qualified. If an educator/teacher is absent, students are allowed free time during that period. A special system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung allows pupils on vocational courses to do in-service training in a company as well as at a state school. List of universities in Germany. This is a list of the universities in Germany, of which there are about seventy.
The list also includes the 13 German universities of technology which have official and full university status, but which usually focus on engineering and the natural sciences rather than covering the whole spectrum of academic disciplines. However, the list does not cover the German Fachhochschulen (universities of applied sciences) and institutions that cover only certain disciplines such as business studies, fine arts, or engineering sciences. Those do not have all of the responsibilities and limitations of old universities and they can not award doctorate degrees on their own. Healthcare in Germany.
Germany has a universal multi-payer health care system with two main types of health insurance: "Law-enforced health insurance" (Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung) known as sickness funds and "Private" (Private Krankenversicherung). Compulsory insurance applies to those below a set income level and is provided through private non-profit "sickness funds" at common rates for all members, and is paid for with joint employer-employee contributions.
Provider compensation rates are negotiated in complex corporatist social bargaining among specified autonomously organized interest groups (e.g. physicians' associations) at the level of federal states (Länder). The sickness funds are mandated to provide a wide range of coverages and cannot refuse membership or otherwise discriminate on an actuarial basis. Small numbers of persons are covered by tax-funded government employee insurance or social welfare insurance. Healthcare.