Crime and Law enforcement in Afghanistan. Crime in Afghanistan. Law enforcement in Afghanistan. Afghan National Police (ANP) commander marching to greet distinguished visitors at the Afghan National Police Academy (ANPA) in 2010.
Health in Afghanistan. After Operation Enduring Freedom in late 2001, when the United Nations began focusing on the situation in Afghanistan, improvement slowly began in the health care system of the country. According to USAID, infant mortality rate has decreased by 22% and child mortality has dropped by 26% since 2003.
It was reported in 2006 that nearly 60% of the population lives within two hours walking distance of the nearest health facility, up from nine percent in 2002. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the average life expectancy at birth is reported at around 60 years for both sexes. In 2013, Harvard Medical school and NATO published a report on the impact of the conflict on the Afghan health system. History Beginning in 1979, military conflict destroyed the health system of Afghanistan. Most medical professionals left the country by 1992, and all medical training programs ceased. Health in Afghanistan. Education in Afghanistan. History One of the oldest schools in Afghanistan is the Habibia High School in Kabul, which was built by King Habibullah Khan in 1903 to educate students from the nation's elite class.
In the 1920s, the German-funded Amani High School opened in Kabul, and about a decade later two French lycées (secondary schools) began, the AEFE and the Lycée Esteqlal. The Kabul University was established in 1932. Afghan female students in 2002 Education was improved under the rule of King Zahir Shah between 1933 and 1973, making primary schools available to about half the population who were younger than 12 years of age, and expanding the secondary school system and Kabul University. Education in Afghanistan. Demography of Afghanistan. The population of Afghanistan is around 31 million as of the year 2013, which includes the 2.7 million Afghan refugees that are residing temporarily in Pakistan and Iran. The nation is composed of a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade and invasion routes between Central Asia, Southern Asia, and Western Asia.
The majority of Afghanistan's population consist of Pashtun people followed by Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch and others. Islam is the religion of more than 99% of Afghanistan. An estimated 80-89% of the population practice Sunni Islam and belong to the Hanafi Islamic law school while 10-19% are Shia, majority of the Shia follow the Twelver branch with smaller numbers of Ismailis.
The remaining 1% or less practice other religions such as Sikhism and Hinduism. Population statistics Age structure Young Afghan men and women at a rock music festival inside the Gardens of Babur in 2011. Demographics in Afghanistan. Afghan diaspora. Afghan diaspora or Afghan immigrants are citizens of Afghanistan who have emigrated to other countries, or people of Afghan origin who are born outside Afghanistan.
Traditionally the borders in between Afghanistan and its neighboring states have been fluid and vague. Like many nations created by European empires the borders often do not follow ethnic divisions and many ethnic groups and tribes native to Afghanistan are found on both sides of present day international borders. This meant that historically there was much movement across present day barriers. In 2013, more than 2.8 million Afghan refugees were living in Iran with only 0.8 million of them being registered as legal migrants and rest living as illegal refugees in Iran. Similarly 1.5 million officially registered Afghan refugees were reported to be living in Pakistan in addition to approximately one million more illegal refugees. Afghan refugees returning from Pakistan in 2004 Annotations Bibliography Notes.
Ethnic groups in Afghanistan. Afghanistan is a multiethnic society.
The population of the country is divided into a wide variety of ethnolinguistic groups. The ethnic groups of the country are as follow: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimak, Turkmen, Baloch, Pashai, Nuristani, Gujjar, Arab, Brahui, Pamiri and some others. The Afghan National Anthem mentions a total of 14 ethnic groups. National identity While national culture of Afghanistan is not uniform, at the same time, the various ethnic groups have no clear boundaries between each other and there is much overlap. Additionally, ethnic groups are not racially homogenous.
Since Afghan history is fraught with regional cleavages any notion of an Afghan nation state is absent until the rise of the Hotakis and Durranis in the early-18th century. File:US Army ethnolinguistic map of Afghanistan. Ethnography in Afghanistan. Languages of Afghanistan. Minor languages may include Ashkunu, Kamkata-viri, Vasi-vari, Tregami and Kalasha-ala, Pamiri (Shughni, Munji, Ishkashimi and Wakhi), Brahui, Hindko, and Kyrgyz.
Harald Haarmann believes that Afghanistan is home to more than 40 minor languages, with around 200 different dialects. Language policy In 1980, other regional languages were granted official status in the regions where they are the language of the majority. Article 16 of the 2004 Afghan Constitution states that "The Turkic languages (Uzbek and Turkmen), Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani and Pamiri (alsana) are – in addition to Pashto and Dari – the third official language in areas where the majority speaks them. The practical modalities for implementation of this provision shall be specified by law. Languages in Afghanistan. Religion in Afghanistan. The official religion in Afghanistan is Islam, which is practiced by over 99% of its citizens.
Sunni Islam makes up 69-89% of the total population while the remaining 10-19% are Shi'as and about 1% or less practice other religions. Apart from Muslims, there are also small minorities of Christians, Buddhist, Parsi (Zoroastrians), Sikhs and Hindus. At a population growth rate of 3.85, Afghanistan has the fastest-growing Muslim population in the world.  History Afghanistan was not always religiously homogeneous, and Zoroastrians, Buddhists, Jews, and Greeks all left an imprint on its early history. Religion in Afghanistan.