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Cultures and peoples of North America

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Aztec. Large ceramic statue of an Aztec Eagle Warrior.

Aztec

Gros Ventre. The Gros Ventre (English pronunciation: /ˈɡroʊvɑːnt/; from French: "big belly"),[1] also known as the A'ani, A'aninin, Haaninin, and Atsina, are a historically Algonquian-speaking Native American people located in north central Montana.

Gros Ventre

Today the Gros Ventre people are enrolled in the Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Reservation of Montana, a federally recognized tribe with 3,682 enrolled members, that also includes Assiniboine people or Nakoda people, the Gros Ventre's historical enemies. Name[edit] A'ani, A'aninin, and Haaninin are the tribe's autonyms. These terms mean "White Clay People" or "Lime People. Haida people. In British Columbia, the term "Haida Nation" refers both to the people as a whole and is often used synonymously with their government, the Council of the Haida Nation.

Haida people

Alaskan Haida, the Kaigani, are part of the Central Council Tlingit Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska government.[2] The Haida language has sometimes been classified as one of the Na-Dene group, but is usually considered to be an isolate.[3] Haida society continues to be very engaged in the production of a robust and highly stylized art form, a leading component of Northwest Coast art. While frequently expressed in large wooden carvings (totem poles), Chilkat weaving, or ornate jewellery, it is also moving quickly into works of popular expression such as Haida manga. Location[edit] Popoluca. Popoluca is a Nahuatl term (meaning "gibberish, unintelligible speech") for various indigenous peoples of southeastern Veracruz and Oaxaca.

Popoluca

Many of them (about 30,000.[1]) speak languages of the Mixe–Zoque family. Others speak the unrelated Mazatecan languages, in which case the name in English and Spanish is generally spelled Popoloca. Various peoples called Popoluca[edit] Hidatsa. Road Maker (Aríìhiriš), a 19th-century Hidatsa chief.

Hidatsa

Engraving after a watercolour by Karl Bodmer. Huichol people. The Huichol or Wixáritari (Huichol pronunciation: /wiˈraɾitaɾi/)[1] are indigenous people of Mexico, living in the Sierra Madre Occidental range in the Mexican states of Nayarit, Jalisco, Zacatecas, and Durango.

Huichol people

They are best known to the larger world as the Huichol, however, they refer to themselves as Wixáritari ("the people") in their native Huichol language. The adjectival form of Wixáritari and name for their own language is Wixárika. Tohono O'odham. The Tohono O’odham (/toʊˈhɑːnə ˈɑːtʊm/, or /tɑːˈhoʊnə ˈɑːtəm/)[2] are a group of Native Americans who reside primarily in the Sonoran Desert of the southeastern Arizona and northwestern Mexico.

Tohono O'odham

“Tohono O’odham” means “Desert People”. Zuni language. Zuni /ˈzuːni/ (also formerly Zuñi) is a language of the Zuni people, indigenous to western New Mexico and eastern Arizona in the United States.

Zuni language

It is spoken by around 9,500 people worldwide, especially in the vicinity of Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico, and much smaller numbers in parts of Arizona. Unlike most indigenous languages in the US, Zuni is still spoken by a significant number of children and, thus, is comparatively less threatened with language endangerment. Chiricahua. Name[edit] The Chiricahua Apache are also known as the Chiricagui, Apaches de Chiricahui, Chiricahues, Chilicague, Chilecagez, and Chiricagua.

Chiricahua

The White Mountain Apache, including the Cibecue and Bylas groups of the Western Apache, called them Ha’i’ą́há (meaning 'Eastern Sunrise"). The San Carlos Apache called them Hák’ą́yé. Comanche. The Comanche (Comanche: Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Plains Indian tribe whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas.

Comanche

The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma.[1] Post-contact, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers with a horse culture. There may have been as many as 45,000 Comanches in the late 18th century.[2] They were the dominant tribe on the Southern Plains and often took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, selling them as slaves to the Spanish and later Mexican settlers.

They also took thousands of captives from the Spanish, Mexican and American settlers.[3] The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, sometimes classified as a Shoshone dialect.[5] About 1% of Comanches speak their language today.[5][6] Government Economic development. Natchez people. The Natchez /nætʃəz/[1][2] (Natchez pronunciation [naːʃt͡seh]) are a Native American people who originally lived in the Natchez Bluffs area, near the present-day city of Natchez, Mississippi. They spoke a language isolate that has no known close relatives, although it may be very distantly related to the Muskogean languages of the Creek Confederacy.[4] The Natchez are noted for being the only Mississippian culture with complex chiefdom characteristics to have survived long into the period after the European colonization of America began.

Others had generally declined a century or two before European encounter. The Natchez are also noted for having had an unusual social system of nobility classes and exogamous marriage practices. It was a strongly matrilineal society with descent reckoned along female lines. History[edit] Prehistoric[edit] A photo of Emerald Mound. Muscogee. The Muscogee are descendants of the Mississippian culture peoples, who built earthwork mounds at their regional chiefdoms located throughout the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries.

The historian Walter Williams and others believe the early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century.[4] The Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. Wyandot people. The modern Wyandot emerged in the late 17th century from the remnants of two earlier groups, the Wendat or Huron Confederacy and the Tionontate, called the Petun (tobacco people) by the French because of their cultivation of the crop. They were located in the southern part of what is now the Canadian province of Ontario around Georgian Bay. Drastically reduced in number by epidemic diseases after 1634, they were dispersed by war in 1649 from the Iroquois, the Haudenosaunee, then based in New York.

Today the Wyandot have a reserve in Quebec, Canada. They also have three major settlements in the United States, two of which have independently governed, federally recognized tribes.[1] Due to differing development of the groups, they speak distinct forms of Wendat and Wyandot languages. History[edit] Origin, names and organization: before 1650[edit] Huron-Plume group – Spencerwood, Quebec City, 1880 Early theories placed Huron origin in the St. European contact and Wendat dispersal[edit] Pawnee people.

Pawnee people (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Caddoan-speaking Native American tribe. They are federally recognized as the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma and have four confederated bands: the Chaui, Kitkehakhi, Pitahawirata, and Skidi.[3] Historically, the Pawnee lived along outlying tributaries of the Missouri River: the Platte, Loup and Republican rivers in present-day Nebraska and in northern Kansas. They lived in permanent earth lodge villages where they farmed. They left the villages on seasonal buffalo hunts, using tipis while traveling.[2] In the early 19th century, the Pawnee numbered about 10,000 people and were one of the largest and most powerful tribes on the Great Plains.[4] They had escaped some of the depredations of exposure to Eurasian infectious diseases impacting other Indian groups.

Government[edit] Omaha people. The Omaha are a federally recognized Native American tribe that lives on the Omaha Reservation in northeastern Nebraska and western Iowa, United States. The Omaha Indian Reservation lies primarily in the southern part of Thurston County and northeastern Cuming County, Nebraska, but small parts extend into the northeast corner of Burt County and across the Missouri River into Monona County, Iowa. Its total land area is 796.355 km2 (307.474 sq mi) and a population of 5,194 was recorded in the 2000 census.[1] Its largest community is Macy. [citation needed] About 1770, the Omaha became the first tribe on the Northern Plains to adopt equestrian culture.[2] Developing "The Big Village" (Ton-wa-tonga) about 1775 in current-day Dakota County in northeast Nebraska, the Omaha developed an extensive trading network with early European explorers and French Canadian voyageurs.

They controlled the fur trade and access to other tribes on the Upper Missouri River. Kaska Dena. "Kaska" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Kaskians, an ancient Anatolian people. Slavey people. Havasupai. Ktunaxa. Yokuts people. The Yokuts (previously known as Mariposans[5]) are an ethnic group of Native Americans native to central California. Prior to European contact, the Yokuts consisted of up to 60 separate tribes speaking the same language. Some of their descendants prefer to refer to themselves by their respective tribal names and reject the name Yokuts with the claim that it is an exonym invented by English speaking settlers and historians[citation needed]. "Yokuts" means "People. " Yurok people. The Yurok, whose name means "downriver people" in the neighboring Karuk language (also called yuh'ára, or yurúkvaarar in Karuk),[3] are Native Americans who live in northwestern California near the Klamath River and Pacific coast.[2] Their autonym is Olekwo'l meaning "Persons.

" Skokomish people. Tsatsalatsa - Skokomish by Edward S. Nuxalk Nation. Eyak language. Klamath people. A Klamath man. Paiute. Paiute (/ˈpaɪjuːt/; also Piute) refers to three closely related groups of indigenous peoples of the Great Basin: Pomo people. Saulteaux. Mi'kmaq. Innu. Inuit. Aleut people. Deg Hit'an.