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Culture and peoples of the Insular Pacific region

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Chukchi people. Representation of a Chukchi family by Louis Choris (1816) The Chukchi (Russian: чукчи (plural), чукча (singular)) are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.

Chukchi people

They speak the Chukchi language. Ifugao. It is named after the term "i-pugo" which means "i" (from/people) and "pugo" (hill), thus it means people of the hill.

Ifugao

The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras and Banaue Rice Terraces are the main tourist attractions in the province. These 2000-year-old terraces were carved into the mountains, without the aid of machinery, they used their "bare" hands to provide level steps where the natives can plant rice. In 1995, they were declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Palauan language. Palauan (also spelled Belauan) is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Palau, the other being English.

Palauan language

It is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, and is one of only two indigenous languages in Micronesia that is not part of the Oceanic branch of that family, the other being Chamorro. Classification[edit] Palauan is not a Micronesian or Polynesian language like most of its neighbors; rather, like Chamorro, it constitutes a possibly independent branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages. Its origins are thus somewhat obscure. Yap. Yap or Wa′ab (Yapese: Waqab[1]) is an island in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean.

Yap

It is considered to be made up of four separate islands: Yap Island proper (MarbaQ),Tamil/Gagil, Maap (Yapese: Maap′), and Rumung. The three are contiguous though separated by water and are surrounded by a common coral reef. They are formed from an uplift of the Philippine Sea Plate, and are referred to as "high" islands as opposed to atolls. The land is mostly rolling hills densely vegetated. Chuuk State. Chuuk State (also known as Truk) is one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM).

Chuuk State

The other states are Kosrae State, Pohnpei State, and Yap State. It consists of several island groups: Marshall Islands. The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Marshallese: Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ),[note 1] is an island country located in the northern Pacific Ocean.

Marshall Islands

Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia, with the population of 68,480 people spread out over 24 low-lying coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. Culture of Kiribati. Contemporary Kiribati culture is centered on the family, the church and the sea.

Culture of Kiribati

Its relative isolation Kiribati has allowed "traditional values" and skills to be maintained. Material culture[edit] In 1963 Gerd Koch, a German anthropologist, carried out research in the islands of Kiribati to record traditional practices,[1] and in 1965 he published the Material Culture of the Glbert Islands.[2][3] His field work produced 70 films of traditional practices and material culture.[4] The Ethnological Museum of Berlin also holds approximately photos and an extensive collection of audio tapes (including music-ethnological material) made by Koch.[1] Dueling[edit] Samoans. The Samoan people are a Polynesian ethnic group of the Samoan Islands , sharing genetics, language, history and culture. Due to colonialism, the home islands are politically and geographically divided between the country of Samoa , official name Independent State of Samoa (formerly Western Samoa until country name change in 1997); and American Samoa , an unincorporated territory of the United States .

Samoans living in Samoa in 2006 were estimated at 188,000 [ 5 ] The majority of ethnic Samoans now reside in other countries, primarily in the United States (180,000 in 2012), [ 6 ] New Zealand (115,000 in 2001) [ 7 ] and Australia (39,992 in 2006) [ 8 ] Migration [ edit source | edit beta ] Samoan family, c. 1909 Early contact with Europeans was established in the 18th century.

Culture [ edit source | edit beta ] Samoan family Sports [ edit source | edit beta ] Tattooing [ edit source | edit beta ] Tatau, the Samoan word for tattoo has a number of meanings including correct or rightness . Culture of the Marquesas Islands. Marquesans performing a Haka dance The Marquesas Islands were colonized by seafaring Polynesians as early as 300 AD, thought to originate from Samoa.

Culture of the Marquesas Islands

The dense population was concentrated in the narrow valleys, and consisted of warring tribes, who sometimes cannibalized their enemies. Much of Polynesia, including the original settlers of Hawaii, Tahiti, Rapa Iti and Easter Island, was settled by Marquesans, believed to have departed from the Marquesas as a result more frequently of overpopulation and drought-related food shortages, than because of the nearly constant warfare that eventually became a prominent feature of the islands' culture.

Māori people. The Māori (Māori pronunciation: [ˈmaːɔɾi], /ˈmɑːʊəri/)[6] are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.

Māori people

The Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages at some time between 1250 and 1300 CE.[7][8] Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture that became known as the "Māori", with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups, based on eastern Polynesian social customs and organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants they introduced, and later a prominent warrior culture emerged. Ajië language. Fijian people. Pentecost Island. Pentecost Island is one of the 83 islands that make up the South Pacific nation of Vanuatu.

Pentecost Island

It lies 190 kilometres (120 mi) due north of capital Port Vila. Pentecost Island is known as Pentecôte in French and Pentikos in Bislama. The island was known in its native languages by names such as Vanu Aroaroa, although these names are not in common use today. Tikopia. NASA picture of Tikopia. Tikopia is a small and high island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. Covering an area of 5 square kilometers (2 sq. mi.), the island is the remnant of an extinct volcano. Its highest point, Mt. Reani, reaches an elevation of 380 meters (1,247 ft) above sea level. Lake Te Roto covers an old volcanic crater which is 80 metres (260 ft) deep. Bougainville Island. History[edit] During World War I, Australia occupied German New Guinea, including Bougainville, taking it over under a League of Nations mandate. In 1942 during World War II, Japan invaded the island, but allied forces launched the Bougainville campaign to regain control of the island in 1943. Following the war, Bougainville returned to Australian control.

Trobriand Islands. The Trobriand Islands (today officially known as the Kiriwina Islands) are a 450 km² archipelago of coral atolls off the eastern coast of New Guinea. They are part of the nation of Papua New Guinea and are situated in Milne Bay Province. Most of the population of 12,000 indigenous inhabitants live on the main island of Kiriwina, which is also the location of the government station, Losuia. New Ireland Province. New Ireland Province, formerly New Mecklenburg (German: Neu-Mecklenburg) is the most northeastern province of Papua New Guinea.

Physical geography[edit] Manus Province. Kwoma. Ekari language. Orokaiva. Aranda people. Tiwi people. Alor Archipelago. Tobelo language. Toraja. The Toraja are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bajau people. Iban people. Balinese people. Javanese people.