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Culture of Germany

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From its roots, culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

Historically Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"),[197] because of the major role its famous writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought and culture.

The federated states are in charge of the cultural institutions. There are 240 subsidised theatres, hundreds of symphonic orchestras, thousands of museums and over 25,000 libraries spread in Germany. These cultural opportunities are enjoyed by many: there are over 91 million German museum visits every year; annually, 20 million go to theatres and operas; 3.6 million per year listen to the symphonic orchestras.[198] As of 2013 the UNESCO inscribed 38 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.[199]

Germany has established a high level of gender equality,[200] promotes disability rights, and is legally and socially tolerant towards homosexuals. Gays and lesbians can legally adopt their partner's biological children, and civil unions have been permitted since 2001.[201] Germany has also changed its attitude towards immigrants; since the mid-1990s, the government and the majority of Germans have begun to acknowledge that controlled immigration should be allowed based on qualification standards.[202] Germany has been named the world's second most valued nation among 50 countries in 2010.[203] A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2011,[204] and for being the most positively viewed nation in the world, in 2013.

Culture of Germany. German culture began long before the rise of Germany as a nation-state and spanned the entire German-speaking world.

Culture of Germany

From its roots, culture in Germany has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker (the country of poets and thinkers).[1] The federated states are in charge of the cultural institutions. There are 240 subsidised theatres, hundreds of symphonic orchestras, thousands of museums, and more than 25,000 libraries spread in Germany. These cultural opportunities are enjoyed by many: there are over 91 million German museum visits every year; annually, 20 million go to theatres and operas; 3.6 million per year listen to the symphonic orchestras.[2] The UNESCO inscribed 38 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.[3]

German art. German art has a long and distinguished tradition in the visual arts, from the earliest known work of figurative art to its current output of contemporary art.

German art

Germany has only been united into a single state since the 19th century, and defining its borders has been a notoriously difficult and painful process. For earlier periods German art often effectively includes that produced in German-speaking regions including Austria, Alsace and much of Switzerland, as well as largely German-speaking cities or regions to the east of the modern German borders. Prehistory to Late Antiquity[edit] Art. Music of Germany. Forms of German-language music include Neue Deutsche Welle ( NDW ), Krautrock , Hamburger Schule , Volksmusik , Classical , German hip hop , trance , Schlager , Neue Deutsche Härte ( NDH ), and diverse varieties of folk music , such as Waltz and Medieval metal .

Music of Germany

German Classical is among the most performed in the world; German composers include some of the most accomplished and popular in history, among them Johann Sebastian Bach , Ludwig van Beethoven , Franz Schubert , Johannes Brahms , Robert Schumann and Richard Wagner . Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , born in Salzburg (now in Austria), was among many opera composers who created the field of German opera .

The beginning of what is now considered German music could be traced back to the 12th-century compositions of mystic abbess Hildegard of Bingen , who wrote a variety of hymns and other kinds of Christian music . Minnesingers and Meistersingers [ edit source | edit beta ] Chorale [ edit source | edit beta ] Opera [ edit source | edit beta ] Music.

Architecture

Literature and Philosophy. German literature. German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language.

German literature

This includes literature written in Germany, Austria, the German part of Switzerland, and to a lesser extent works of the German diaspora. German literature of the modern period is mostly in Standard German, but there are some currents of literature influenced to a greater or lesser degree by dialects (e.g. Alemannic). An early flowering of German literature is the Middle High German period of the High Middle Ages. Modern literature in German begins with the authors of the Enlightenment (such as Herder) and reaches its classical form at the turn of the 18th century with Weimar Classicism (Goethe and Schiller).

Periodization[edit] Periodization is not an exact science but the following list contains movements or time periods typically used in discussing German literature. German philosophy. German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz through Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers.

German philosophy

Søren Kierkegaard (a Danish philosopher) is frequently included in surveys of German (or Germanic) philosophy due to his extensive engagement with German thinkers.[1][2][3][4] 17th century[edit] Leibniz[edit] Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) was both a philosopher and a mathematician who wrote primarily in Latin and French. Leibniz is noted for his optimism - his Théodicée[5] tries to justify the apparent imperfections of the world by claiming that it is optimal among all possible worlds. German cuisine. German cuisine has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region.

German cuisine

The southern regions of Germany, including Bavaria and neighbouring Swabia, share many dishes. Furthermore, across the border in Austria, one will find many different dishes. However, ingredients and dishes vary by region. Many significant regional dishes have become international, but have proliferated in very different variations across the country presently. Hot foods[edit] Cuisine. Sport in Germany. Sport is an important part of German culture and society.

Sport in Germany

In 2006 about 27.5 million people were members of the more than 91,000 sport clubs in Germany. Almost all sports clubs are represented by the Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund (DOSB, German Olympic Sports Federation). With a total of 26,000 clubs and 178,000 teams the German Football Association (DFB) is the largest individual body in the DOSB. Sport is financed by means of state funding and state contributions, voluntary service, private sponsors and membership fees. Olympics[edit] In the all-time Olympic Games medal count through 2006 Germany ranks fifth, East Germany seventh and West Germany twenty-first. Sports.